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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano-Lamphar, H.A.; Videen, G.
Title Night-sky radiometry can revolutionize the characterization of light-pollution sources globally Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 116 Issue 16 Pages 7712-7717
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract The city emission function (CEF), describing the angular emission from an entire city as a light source, is one of the key elements in night-sky radiance models. The CEF describes the rate at which skyglow depends on distance and is indispensable in any prediction of light-pollution propagation into nocturnal environments. Nevertheless, the CEF remains virtually unexplored because appropriate retrieval tools have been unavailable until very recently. A CEF has now been obtained from ground-based night-sky observations and establishes an experiment successfully conducted in the field to retrieve the angular emission function for an urban area. The field campaign was conducted near the city of Los Mochis, Mexico, which is well isolated from other cities and thus dominates all light emissions in its vicinity. The experiment has proven that radiometry of a night sky can provide information on the light output pattern of a distant city and allows for systematic, full-area, and cost-efficient CEF monitoring worldwide. A database of CEFs could initiate a completely new phase in light-pollution research, with significant economy and advanced accuracy of night-sky brightness predictions. The experiment and its interpretation represent unique progress in the field and contribute to our fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which direct and reflected uplight interact while forming the CEF.
Address Battlefield Environment Division, Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD 20783
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30936314; PMCID:PMC6475415 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2330
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Author Lee, H.-S.; Lee, E.; Moon, J.-H.; Kim, Y.J.; Lee, H.-J.
Title Circadian disruption and increase of oxidative stress in male and female volunteers after bright light exposure before bed time Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Molecular & Cellular Toxicology Abbreviated Journal Mol. Cell. Toxicol.
Volume 15 Issue 2 Pages 221-229
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Backgrounds

Circadian rhythms are patterns of behaviour, physiology, and metabolism that occur within a period of approximately 24 h. The higher risk of breast and prostate cancers among shift workers, as well as the general population, are reported to be associated with circadian rhythm disruption caused by exposure to light at night. We focused on the effects of bright light before bed comparing effects between men and women.

Methods

Male and female healthy volunteers aged 20–30 were exposed to 4 hours of bright light before bed for 3 and 4 days.

Results

We analyzed the shift of circadian rhythms of subjects based on cortisol secretion patterns in response to short periods of bright-light exposure at bedtime. We also found an increase of oxidative stress including MDA, 8-OHdG, and total antioxidants in both male and female volunteers.

Conclusion

These results suggest that bright light exposure before sleep, often encounter in modern daily life, has a considerable influence on the human body. The chronic effects of light exposure before bed time such as the carcinogenic effects caused by circadian disruption and oxidative stress need further investigation.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1738-642X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2331
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Author Pu, G.; Zen, D.; Mo, L.; He, W.; Zhou, L.; Huang, K.; Liao, J.; Qiu, S.; Chai, S.
Title Does artificial light at night change the impact of silver nanoparticles on microbial decomposers and leaf litter decomposition in streams? Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Environmental Science: Nano Abbreviated Journal Environ. Sci.: Nano
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Ecology
Abstract The toxic effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) to aquatic species and ecosystem processes have been the focus of increasing research in ecology, but their effects under different environmental stressors, such as the ongoing anthropogenic artificial light at night (ALAN) which can cause a series of ecological effects and will potentially interact with other stressors, remain poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the combined effects of AgNP and ALAN on the activities and community structure of fungi and bacteria associated to plant litter in a stream. The results showed that ALAN not only led to changes in the average hydrodynamic diameter, ζ-potential and dissolved concentration of AgNP but also inhibited the enzyme activities of leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (PER) associated to microbes involved in litter decomposition. The negative effect of AgNP on the decomposition of Pterocarya stenoptera leaf litter was alleviated by ALAN owing to the reduction of Ag+ concentration in the microcosm and lignin content in the leaf litter in the A-AgNP treatments, the enhancement of β-glucosidase (β-G) activities and the increase of microbial biomass. The effect of ALAN alone or combined with AgNP or AgNO3 on the taxonomic composition of fungi was much greater than that on bacteria. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) demonstrated that each treatment had its own fungal and bacterial indicator taxa, from the phylum to genus levels, indicating that the microbial communities associated with litter decomposition can change their constituent taxa to cope with different stressors. These results reveal that ALAN can decrease the toxicity of AgNP and highlight the importance of considering ALAN during the assessment of the risk posed by nanoparticles to freshwater biota and ecosystem processes.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2051-8153 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2332
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Author Benedetto, M.M.; Contin, M.A.
Title Oxidative Stress in Retinal Degeneration Promoted by Constant LED Light Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Front. Cell. Neurosci.
Volume 13 Issue Pages
Keywords Vision; Human Health
Abstract Light pollution by artificial light, might accelerate retinal diseases and circadian asynchrony. The excess of light exposure is a growing problem in societies, so studies on the consequences of long-term exposure to low levels of light are needed to determine the effects on vision. The possibility to understand the molecular mechanisms of light damage will contribute to the knowledge about visual disorders related to defects in the phototransduction. Several animal models have been used to study retinal degeneration (RD) by light; however, some important aspects remain to be established. Previously, we demonstrated that cool white treatment of 200 lux light-emitting diode (LED) induces retinal transformation with rods and cones cell death and significant changes in opsin expression in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL). Therefore, to further develop describing the molecular pathways of RD, we have examined here the oxidative stress and the fatty acid composition in rat retinas maintained at constant light. We demonstrated the existence of oxidative reactions after 5 days in outer nuclear layer (ONL), corresponding to classical photoreceptors; catalase (CAT) enzyme activity did not show significant differences in all times studied and the fatty acid study showed that docosahexaenoic acid decreased after 4 days. Remarkably, the docosahexaenoic acid diminution showed a correlation with the rise in stearic acid indicating a possible association between them. We assumed that the reduction in docosahexaenoic acid may be affected by the oxidative stress in photoreceptors outer segment which in turn affects the stearic acid composition with consequences in the membrane properties. All these miss-regulation affects the photoreceptor survival through unknown mechanisms involved. We consider that oxidative stress might be one of the pathways implicated in RD promoted by light.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1662-5102 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2333
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Author Pu, G.; Zeng, D.; Mo, L.; Liao, J.; Chen, X.
Title Artificial Light at Night Alleviates the Negative Effect of Pb on Freshwater Ecosystems Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication International Journal of Molecular Sciences Abbreviated Journal Int J Mol Sci
Volume 20 Issue 6 Pages
Keywords ecology
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing phenomenon worldwide that can cause a series of biological and ecological effects, yet little is known about its potential interaction with other stressors in aquatic ecosystems. Here, we tested whether the impact of lead (Pb) on litter decomposition was altered by ALAN exposure using an indoor microcosm experiment. The results showed that ALAN exposure alone significantly increased leaf litter decomposition, decreased the lignin content of leaf litter, and altered fungal community composition and structure. The decomposition rate was 51% higher in Pb with ALAN exposure treatments than in Pb without ALAN treatments, resulting in increased microbial biomass, beta-glucosidase (beta-G) activity, and the enhanced correlation between beta-G and litter decomposition rate. These results indicate that the negative effect of Pb on leaf litter decomposition in aquatic ecosystems may be alleviated by ALAN. In addition, ALAN exposure also alters the correlation among fungi associated with leaf litter decomposition. In summary, this study expands our understanding of Pb toxicity on litter decomposition in freshwater ecosystems and highlights the importance of considering ALAN when assessing environmental metal pollutions.
Address College of Life Science, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541006, China. chenxx7276@163.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1422-0067 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30884876; PMCID:PMC6471329 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2334
Permanent link to this record