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Author Ebbensgaard, C.L.
Title Making sense of diodes and sodium: Vision, visuality and the everyday experience of infrastructural change Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Geoforum Abbreviated Journal Geoforum
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting
Abstract The recognition of vision as a powerful register for organising urban space locates lighting technologies at the heart of urban experience. Recently, scholars have established that lighting technologies shape not just what we see but how we see, drawing attention towards light as that ‘with which we see’. This article shifts attention from the role of lighting in shaping what and how people see, to how people make sense of changes to their visual sensorium—from what lighting infrastructures do to what is done with them. By following older residents living in the London Borough of Newham along routine travels on foot at night, I demonstrate how they make sense of the Council’s initiative to upgrade their 19,500 street-lamps with Light Emitting Diodes. I demonstrate how such infrastructural change exposes an uneven geographical distribution of and access to light and darkness with potentially detrimental consequences for the formation of public life after dark. Recognising how light infrastructures are reframed through everyday life, I demonstrate how LEDs do not necessarily produce their desired effects and how light clutter and light bleed might contribute to producing nocturnal atmospheres where people feel safe and confident. Broadening the understanding of how different technologies and light sources are important for the formation of inclusive nocturnal publics the article sets out a ‘politics of visibility’ that recognises the role of lighting in creating visibility for and of residents.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0016-7185 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2360
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Author Wang, J.; Qu, S.; Peng, K.; Feng, Y.
Title Quantifying Urban Sprawl and Its Driving Forces in China Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society Abbreviated Journal Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society
Volume 2019 Issue Pages 1-14
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Against the background that urbanization has proceeded quickly in China over the last two decades, a limited number of empirical researches have been performed for analyzing the measurement and driving forces of urban sprawl at the national and regional level. The article aims at using remote sensing derived data and administrative data (for statistical purposes) to investigate the development status of urban sprawl together with its driving forces. Compared with existing studies, NPP/VIIRS data and LandScan data were used here to examine urban sprawl from two different perspectives: urban population sprawl and urban land sprawl. Furthermore, we used population density as a counter-indicator of urban sprawl, and the regression results also prove the superiority of the urban sprawl designed by us. The main results show that the intensity of urban population sprawl and urban land sprawl has been enhanced. However, the upside-down between the inflow of migrants and the supply of urban construction land among different regions aggravates the intensity of urban sprawl. According to the regression analyses, the driving mechanism of urban sprawl in the eastern region relying on land finance and financial development has lost momentum for the limitation of urban construction land supply. The continuous outflow of population and loosely land supply have accelerated the intensity of urban land sprawl in the central and western regions. The findings of the article may help people to realize that urban sprawl has become a staggering reality among Chinese cities; thereby urban planners as well as policymakers should make some actions to hinder the urban sprawl.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1026-0226 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2379
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Author Peña-García, A.; Sędziwy, A.
Title Optimizing Lighting of Rural Roads and Protected Areas with White Light: A Compromise among Light Pollution, Energy Savings, and Visibility Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Leukos Abbreviated Journal Leukos
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Energy; Skyglow
Abstract The broad implementation of light emitting diode (LED) light sources in public lighting has become a revolution in recent years. Their low power consumption and good performance (extremely low onset time, long lifetime, high efficacy) make LEDs an optimal solution in most outdoor applications. In addition, the white light emitted by the vast majority of LEDs used in public lighting and their good color rendering improve well-being, comfort, and safety in cities, especially in commercial zones and urban centers. However, regulations on light pollution that have been developed in some countries in parallel to the introduction of LED lighting impose strong constraints to white light emission, which is present due to the higher Rayleigh scattering of short wavelengths. These regulations request filtering blue wavelengths in some protected areas and thus limit the projects to high- or low-pressure sodium sources or amber LEDs. In this work, the pros and cons of white and amber LED lighting in rural areas are analyzed and compared through simulations made on a typical rural lighting situation and considerations based on efficiency, visual performance, nonvisual effects, and light pollution. The most important conclusion is that Rayleigh scattering seems to prevail in the current considerations on light pollution, whereas other important aspects affecting safety and sustainability are are not considered. Accurate designs can decrease light pollution without constraints against white LEDs. The objective of this work is to provide evidence leading to consider light pollution from a more general perspective in the benefit of humans and the environment.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1550-2724 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2380
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Author May, D.; Shidemantle, G.; Melnick-Kelley, Q.; Crane, K.; Hua, J.
Title The effect of intensified illuminance and artificial light at night on fitness and susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stressors Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Environmental Pollution Abbreviated Journal Environmental Pollution
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Changing light conditions due to human activities represents an important emerging environmental concern. Although changes to natural light conditions can be independently detrimental, in nature, organisms commonly face multiple stressors. To understand the consequences of altered light conditions, we exposed a model amphibian (wood frog; Lithobates sylvaticus) to a control and two anthropogenic light conditions: intensified daytime illuminance and artificial light at night – ALAN (intensified daytime illuminance + extended photoperiod). We measured (1) metrics of fitness (hatching success as well as survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis) (2) susceptibility (time to death) to a commonly co-occurring anthropogenic stressor, road salt (NaCl) and (3) susceptibility (infection load) to a common parasite (trematode). We also explored behavioral (swimming activity) and physiological (baseline corticosterone (CORT) release rates) changes induced by these light conditions, which may mediate changes in the other measured parameters. We found that both intensified daytime illuminance and ALAN reduced hatching success. In contrast, for amphibians that successfully hatched, neither treatment affected amphibian survival or time to metamorphosis but individuals exposed to ALAN were larger at metamorphosis. The light treatments also had marginal effects; individuals in ALAN treatments were more susceptible to NaCl and trematodes. Finally, tadpoles exposed to ALAN moved significantly less than tadpoles in the control and intensified daytime illuminance treatments, while light had no effect on CORT release rate. Overall, changes in light conditions, in particular ALAN, significantly impacted an amphibian model in laboratory conditions. This work underscores the importance of considering not only the direct effects of light on fitness metrics but also the indirect effects of light with other abiotic and biotic stressors. Anthropogenic-induced changes to light conditions are expected to continue increasing over time so understanding the diverse consequences of shifting light conditions will be paramount to protecting wildlife populations.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2381
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Author Xiang, S.; Dauchy, R.T.; Hoffman, A.E.; Pointer, D.; Frasch, T.; Blask, D.E.; Hill, S.M.
Title Epigenetic inhibition of the tumor suppressor ARHI by light at night-induced circadian melatonin disruption mediates STAT3-driven paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res
Volume in press Issue Pages e12586
Keywords Animals; Human Health
Abstract Disruption of circadian time structure and suppression of circadian nocturnal melatonin (MLT) production by exposure to dim light at night (dLAN), as occurs with night shift work and/or disturbed sleep-wake cycles, is associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer and resistance to tamoxifen and doxorubicin. Melatonin inhibition of human breast cancer chemo-resistance involves mechanisms including suppression of tumor metabolism and inhibition of kinases and transcription factors which are often activated in drug-resistant breast cancer. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), frequently overexpressed and activated in Paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant breast cancer, promotes the expression of DNA methyltransferase one (DNMT1) to epigenetically suppresses the transcription of tumor suppressor Aplasia Ras homolog one (ARHI) which can sequester STAT3 in the cytoplasm to block PTX-resistance. We demonstrate that breast tumor xenografts in rats exposed to dLAN and circadian MLT disrupted express elevated levels of phosphorylated and acetylated STAT3, increased DNMT1, but reduced Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and ARHI. Furthermore, MLT and/or SIRT1 administration blocked/reversed Interleukin 6 (IL-6)-induced acetylation of STAT3 and its methylation of ARH1 to increase ARH1 mRNA expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Finally, analyses of the I-SPY 1 trial demonstrates that elevated MT1 receptor expression is significantly correlated with pathologic complete response following neo-adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. This is the first study to demonstrate circadian disruption of MLT by dLAN driving intrinsic resistance to PTX via epigenetic mechanisms increasing STAT3 expression and that MLT administration can reestablish sensitivity of breast tumors to PTX and drive tumor regression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Tulane Circadian Cancer Biology Group, New Orleans, Louisiana
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31077613 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2383
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