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Author Prabhat, A.; Malik, I.; Jha, N.A.; Bhardwaj, S.K.; Kumar, V.
Title Developmental effects of constant light on circadian behaviour and gene expressions in zebra finches: Insights into mechanisms of metabolic adaptation to aperiodic environment in diurnal animals Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology
Volume in press Issue Pages 111995
Keywords Animals
Abstract A most crucial feature of biological adaptation is the maintenance of a close temporal relationship of behaviour and physiology with prevailing 24-h light-dark environment, which is rapidly changing with increasing nighttime illumination. This study investigated developmental effects of the loss of night on circadian behaviour, metabolism and gene expressions in diurnal zebra finches born and raised under LL, with controls on 12 L:12D. Birds under LD were entrained, and showed normal body mass and a significant 24-h rhythm in both activity-rest pattern and mRNA expression of candidate genes that we measured. But, under LL, birds gained weight and accumulated lipid in the liver. Intriguingly, at the end of the experiment, the majority (4/5th) of birds under LL were rhythmic in activity despite arrhythmic expression in the hypothalamus of c-Fos (neuronal activity), Rhodopsin and Mel1-a genes (light perception), and clock genes (Bmal1, Per2 and Rev-erb β). In peripheral tissues, LL induced variable clock gene expressions. Whereas 24-h mRNA rhythm was abolished for Bmal1 in both liver and gut, it persisted for Per2 and Rev-erb β in liver, and for Per2 in gut. Further, we found under LL, the loss of 24-h rhythm in hepatic expression of Fasn and Cd36/Fat (biosynthesis and its uptake), and gut expression of Sglt1, Glut5, Cd36 and Pept1 (nutrient absorption) genes. As compared to LD, baseline mRNA levels of Fasn and Cd36 genes were attenuated under LL. Among major transporter genes, Sglt1 (glucose) and Cd36 (fat) genes were arrhythmic, while Glut5 (glucose) and Pept1 (protein) genes were rhythmic but with phase differences under LL, compared to LD. These results demonstrate dissociation of circadian behaviour from clock gene rhythms, and provide molecular insights into possible mechanisms at different levels (behaviour and physiology) that diurnal animals might employ in order to adapt to an emerging overly illuminated-night urban environment.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1011-1344 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3085
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Author Xie, C.; Zhu, H.; Chen, S.; Wen, Y.; Jin, L.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Shen, Y.
Title Chronic retinal injury induced by white LED light with different correlated color temperatures as determined by microarray analyses of genome-wide expression patterns in mice Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology Abbreviated Journal J Photochem Photobiol B
Volume 210 Issue Pages 111977
Keywords Animals; Vision; Autophagy; Cct; Expression profile microarray; Genome-wide; Led; Retinal photoreceptor degeneration; Ubiquitin
Abstract Widely used white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) currently deliver higher levels of blue light than conventional domestic light sources. The high intensity of the blue component is the main source of concern regarding possible health risks of LED to chronic light toxicity to the retina. Therefore, we analyzed retinal injury and genome-wide changes in gene expression induced by white LED light with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) in a mouse model. Balb/c mice (10 weeks old) were exposed to LED light with CCTs of 2954, 5624, and 7378 K, at different illuminance levels (250, 500, 1000, and 3000 lx) and for different exposure times (7, 14, and 28 days). Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that exposure to 7378 K light at 250 lx for 28 days resulted in a significant reduction of outer nuclear layer (ONL) nuclei, whereas 2954 K light at <3000 lx led to only a mild reduction in the number of ONL nuclei. In addition, 5624 and 7378 K light at 3000 lx resulted in a significant increase in TUNEL-positive apoptotic nuclei, which was not found at an illuminance of 1000 lx. Genome-wide expression analyses showed that, compared to a control group, there were 121 upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 458 downregulated DEGs found in the 7378 K group, and 59 upregulated and only 4 downregulated DEGs in the 2954 K group. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses showed that the DEGs were involved in 341 GO terms and 16 related pathways for the 7378 K group and in 12 GO terms and 7 related pathways for the 2954 K group. Signal pathways related to ubiquitin potentially played an important role in light-induced retinal degeneration. Furthermore, retinal immunohistochemistry (IHC) indicated downregulation of ubiquitin and autophagy function caused by 7378 K light. Taken together, these results indicate that retinal injury in the mice induced by white LED light occurred in a CCT-dependent manner, and that light with a higher CCT was more likely to reduce ONL nuclei; however, the apoptosis pathway may not be the only mechanism involved. Based on genome-wide expression analyses and retinal IHC, the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis signal pathway may have participated in the induction retinal degeneration.
Address Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address: idrshen@zju.edu.com
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1011-1344 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32738749 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3086
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Author Feng, Z.; Peng, J.; Wu, J.
Title Using DMSP/OLS nighttime light data and K–means method to identify urban–rural fringe of megacities Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Habitat International Abbreviated Journal Habitat International
Volume 103 Issue Pages 102227
Keywords Remote Sensing
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ISSN 0197-3975 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3087
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Author Kanianska, R.; Škvareninová, J.; Kaniansky, S.
Title Landscape Potential and Light Pollution as Key Factors for Astrotourism Development: A Case Study of a Slovak Upland Region Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Land Abbreviated Journal Land
Volume 9 Issue 10 Pages 374
Keywords Astrotourism; Skyglow
Abstract Astrotourism is considered to be a modern form of ecotourism. The main resource for astrotourism is a high-quality night sky, but this is very sensitive to natural as well as anthropogenic factors; for example, land utilization and expansion of urban areas often cause the negative effect of light pollution. The aim of the study is to perform a lighting survey by night sky brightness (NSB) measurements using the sky quality meter (SQM-L) at 20 study sites of the Slovenské stredohorie Upland region (Slovakia) and to assess the region’s potential for astrotourism development (PAD) using a multicriteria analysis. The NSB values ranged from 19.90 (city Žiar nad Hronom at Žiarska kotlina Basin) to 21.54 mag/arcsec2 (recreation area Poľana at Poľana Mountains). At 14 out of 20 study sites, the NSB values even reached 21.2 mag/arcsec2, as recommended by the International Dark-Sky Association for dark-sky parks. Four study sites were categorized as sites with medium PAD, and sixteen with low PAD. No study site reached a high or very high PAD. The best conditions for astrotourism development are fulfilled mainly by the Poľana Mountains geographical unit. The findings can be used for sustainable astrotourism development, land management, and planning to ensure socioeconomic development, together with nature and dark-sky conservation.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2073-445X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3172
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Author Parkinson, E.; Lawson, J.; Tiegs, S.D.
Title Artificial light at night at the terrestrial-aquatic interface: Effects on predators and fluxes of insect prey Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 15 Issue 10 Pages e0240138
Keywords Ecology
Abstract The outcomes of species interactions-such as those between predators and prey-increasingly depend on environmental conditions that are modified by human activities. Light is among the most fundamental environmental parameters, and humans have dramatically altered natural light regimes across much of the globe through the addition of artificial light at night (ALAN). The consequences for species interactions, communities and ecosystems are just beginning to be understood. Here we present findings from a replicated field experiment that simulated over-the-water lighting in the littoral zone of a small lake. We evaluated responses by emergent aquatic insects and terrestrial invertebrate communities, and riparian predators (tetragnathid spiders). On average ALAN plots had 51% more spiders than control plots that were not illuminated. Mean individual spider body mass was greater in ALAN plots relative to controls, an effect that was strongly sex-dependent; mean male body mass was 34% greater in ALAN plots while female body mass was 176% greater. The average number of prey items captured in spider webs was 139% greater on ALAN mesocosms, an effect attributed to emergent aquatic insects. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and a multiple response permutation procedure revealed significantly different invertebrate communities captured in pan traps positioned in ALAN plots and controls. Control plots had taxonomic-diversity values (as H') that were 58% greater than ALAN plots, and communities that were 83% more-even. We attribute these differences to the aquatic family Caenidae which was the dominant family across both light treatments, but was 818% more abundant in ALAN plots. Our findings show that when ALAN is located in close proximity to freshwater it can concentrate fluxes of emergent aquatic insects, and that terrestrial predators in the littoral zone can compound this effect and intercept resource flows, preventing them from entering the terrestrial realm.
Address Department of Biological Sciences, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, United States of America
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:33031444 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3173
Permanent link to this record