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Author Huang, G.; Huang, Y.; Liu, Z.; Wei, J.; Zhu, Q.; Jiang, G.; Jin, X.; Li, Q.; Li, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title White light-emitting diodes based on quaternary Ag–In-Ga-S quantum dots and their influences on melatonin suppression index Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Journal of Luminescence Abbreviated Journal Journal of Luminescence  
  Volume 233 Issue Pages 117903  
  Keywords Lighting technology  
  Abstract Light sources have effect on the circadian rhythms so as to the health of human. Therefore, both visual and non-visual effects should be considered when designing and fabricating light sources. Quantum dot (QD) materials have been extensively used as color converters to fabricate white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, most of the work on the photoluminescent QD-based LEDs (QLEDs) are focused on the improvement of visual performances. Here, quaternary Ag–In-Ga-S (AIGS)/ZnS QDs are synthesized for the application of white QLEDs taking both visual and non-visual performances into consideration. Theoretical calculation is carried out and the results show that QLEDs based on the combination of red emission QDs and green emission ones can exhibit a high color rendering index (CRI) of 90.8 and a color correlated temperature (CCT) of 5669 K, a melatonin suppression index (MSI) of 0.788. Furthermore, the combination of red 670 nm emission and green 550 nm AIGS/ZnS QDs are integrated with a blue-emission chip to fabricate QLEDs. The as fabricated devices exhibit a maximum CRI of 90.33, a CCT of 5947 K and an MSI of 0.7866, which are all consistent with the simulation results. These experimental results are comparable to those of some commercial white light sources. We discuss non-visual effects of QLEDs for the first time, and our research results show that AIGS/ZnS QDs, which are free-of heavy metal elements and have wide full-width of half maximums (FWHMs), are suitable for the fabrication white light sources with highly visual performances and tunable MSI values, which have many potential applications in the field of healthy lighting and environmentally friendly light sources.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 0022-2313 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3289  
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Author Pan, W.; Du, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impacts of urban morphological characteristics on nocturnal outdoor lighting environment in cities: An empirical investigation in Shenzhen Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; Planning; Energy  
  Abstract Lighting is a vital environmental element that affects people's outdoor activities and the creation of liveable neighbourhoods in cities. The use of appropriate lighting at night in public spaces can benefit people's social well-being. This research examined the effects of urban morphological characteristics on outdoor night-time lighting behaviours by analysing 11 urban neighbourhoods that reflect the variety of the prevailing urban morphological patterns in the city centres of Shenzhen. A set of urban morphological descriptors were analysed and two lighting parameters were evaluated by on-site measurement. The results revealed that the low-density high-rise modern neighbourhoods presented very high outdoor illuminance levels, but extremely low occupant use at night, and consequently, remain significant potential of light pollution and energy waste. By contrast, urban villages with high-density mid-rise patterns possess limited outdoor lighting facilities but exhibited very high nocturnal neighbourhood vitality. This type of neighbourhood presents a “demand-oriented and energy-saving” lighting behaviour during the night-time through the use of light spill from the nearby indoor light sources. Multivariable linear regression indicated that morphological characteristics significantly contribute to the illumination distribution within urban spaces. Together, building coverage ratio, floor area ratio, tree coverage ratio and ground surface albedo explain 88% of the variability of night-time site illuminance uniformity. With adding the dimension of urban morphology, this research tries to extend the scope of urban nocturnal lighting studies and provides insights into the setting of more specific criteria for urban design, so as to contribute to healthy city initiatives.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3290  
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Author McNaughton, E.J.; Beggs, J.R.; Gaston, K.J.; Jones, D.N.; Stanley, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Retrofitting streetlights with LEDs has limited impacts on urban wildlife Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 254 Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) causes a wide range of ecological impacts across diverse ecosystems. Most concentrated in urban areas, ALAN poses a particular risk to associated wildlife by disrupting physiology, behaviour and ultimately survival. This risk is predicted to shift as nighttime lightscapes in many cities undergo change. Globally, streetlights are currently being retrofitted with newer technologies that differ in the spectrum and intensity of their emissions, but there is a dearth of in situ urban experiments on the ecological impacts of this change. We monitored timing of dawn and dusk bird song; frequency of owl vocalisations; avian diversity, relative abundance and community composition; small invasive mammal and ground insect activity; and invertebrate relative abundance at 26 residential properties over an 18-month period that coincided with a retrofit from high-pressure sodium (HPS) to white light-emitting diode (LED) streetlights. Initiation time of dawn song was advanced or delayed for two bird species following the retrofit and backyard avian community composition was altered. Avian species richness, relative abundances of three bird species and ground insect activity increased in the presence of LED streetlights. No other retrofit effects were found. Our study suggests that retrofitting streetlights with white LEDs may lead to both positive and negative conservation outcomes for urban wildlife, but direct impacts are relatively small and may be mitigated by changes in lighting characteristics, such as dimming. Streetlight retrofits could provide an opportunity to reduce the impacts of ALAN on urban wildlife if intentionally designed with conservation benefits in mind.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3291  
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Author Barré, K.; Kerbiriou, C.; Ing, R.-K.; Bas, Y.; Azam, C.; Le Viol, I.; Spoelstra, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bats seek refuge in cluttered environment when exposed to white and red lights at night Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Movement Ecology Abbreviated Journal Mov Ecol  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 3  
  Keywords Animals; Acoustic localization; Artificial light; Chiroptera; Flight behaviour; Microphone array; Streetlight  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Artificial light at night is recognized as an increasing threat to biodiversity. However, information on the way highly mobile taxa such as bats spatially respond to light is limited. Following the hypothesis of a behavioural adaptation to the perceived risks of predation, we hypothesised that bats should avoid lit areas by shifting their flight route to less exposed conditions. METHODS: Using 3D acoustic localization at four experimentally illuminated sites, we studied how the distance to streetlights emitting white and red light affected the Probability of bats Flying Inside the Forest (PFIF) versus along the forest edge. RESULTS: We show that open-, edge-, and narrow-space foraging bats strongly change flight patterns by increasing PFIF when getting closer to white and red streetlights placed in the forest edge. These behavioural changes occurred mainly on the streetlight side where light was directed. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that bats cope with light exposure by actively seeking refuge in cluttered environment, potentially due to involved predation risks. This is a clear indication that bats make use of landscape structures when reacting to light, and shows the potential of vegetation and streetlight orientation in mitigating effects of light. The study nevertheless calls for preserving darkness as the most efficient way.  
  Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), PO Box 50, 6700 AB, Wageningen, The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2051-3933 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:33482918; PMCID:PMC7821510 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3292  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fyie, L.R.; Gardiner, M.M.; Meuti, M.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night alters the seasonal responses of biting mosquitoes Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2021 Publication Journal of Insect Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Insect Physiol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Animals; Culex pipiens; Light pollution; Northern house mosquito; diapause; urbanization  
  Abstract Urban light pollution caused by artificial light at night (ALAN) profoundly affects the ecology, behavior, and physiology of plants and animals. Further, this widespread environmental pollutant has the potential to negatively impact human and animal health by changing the seasonal dynamics of disease-transmitting insects. In response to short days, females of the Northern house mosquito enter an overwintering dormancy, or diapause. While in diapause, female mosquitoes divert energy away from reproduction, cease blood-feeding, and no longer transmit disease. We demonstrate that exposure to dim ALAN ( approximately 4 lux) causes female mosquitoes to avert diapause and become reproductively active, as these females acquired less fat content, developed larger egg follicles, imbibed vertebrate blood, and produced viable eggs and larvae. Our findings suggest that mosquitoes in highly light-polluted areas such as cities may be actively reproducing and biting later in the season, thereby extending the period of disease risk for urban residents. Our results suggest that ALAN should be considered when modeling mosquito abundance, disease risk, and when deciding how long mosquito surveillance and control should persist in temperate regions.  
  Address The Ohio State University, Department of Entomology, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-1910 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:33482172 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3293  
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