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Author Farghly, M.F.; Mahrose, K.M.; Ahmad, E.A.M.; Rehman, Z.U.; Yu, S.
Title Implementation of different feeding regimes and flashing light in broiler chicks Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Poultry Science Abbreviated Journal Poult Sci
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract A 3 x 2 factorial arrangement was implemented to determine the performance of 450 Cobb broilers subjected to different feeding regimes with and without lighting programs. The chicks were divided into 3 groups according to the feeding regime (ad libitum, restricted, or intermittent), and each group was reared under one of two lighting programs (100% continuous light or 50% continuous light and 50% flashing light). The results showed that the broilers under the ad libitum and intermittent feeding regimes had superior body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) values and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) at 3 and 6 wk of age. Broilers exposed to flashing light and an intermittent feeding regime had the highest BW and ADG values and the lowest FCR. Birds exposed to intermittent feeding had the highest dressed carcass weight and the lowest heart weight. Broilers reared with flashing light had higher tenderness and juiciness values than the other groups. Broilers subjected to a restricted feeding regime and flashing light had the lowest abdominal fat values of all the groups. Tenderness and juiciness were significantly higher in broilers subjected to the ad libitum feeding regime x flashing light and the intermittent feeding regime x flashing light. Broilers fed an intermittent regime had the lowest spleen %, heterophil, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and body temperature values of all the groups, and broilers reared under the intermittent regime x flashing light had the lowest spleen %, H/L ratio and body temperature values. Non-significant differences in all health aspects (shank length, keel bone length, foot pad burns, breast blisters score, hock discoloration, and mortality) were observed among the experimental groups. In conclusion, intermittent and restricted feeding regimes and a flashing lighting program improved the FCR and did not produce any adverse effects on performance or physiological parameters. The results of this work show that intermittent feeding and flashing lighting programs are more beneficial to broiler management.
Address Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute (SHVRI), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Shanghai 200241, China
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0032-5791 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30615175 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2158
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Author Grunst, M.L.; Raap, T.; Grunst, A.S.; Pinxten, R.; Eens, M.
Title Artificial light at night does not affect telomere shortening in a developing free-living songbird: A field experiment Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Science of The Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Science of The Total Environment
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasingly pervasive anthropogenic disturbance factor. ALAN can seriously disrupt physiological systems that follow circadian rhythms, and may be particularly influential early in life, when developmental trajectories are sensitive to stressful conditions. Using great tits (Parus major) as a model species, we experimentally examined how ALAN affects physiological stress in developing nestlings. We used a repeated-measure design to assess effects of ALAN on telomere shortening, body mass, tarsus length and body condition. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that protect chromosomes from damage and malfunction. Early-life telomere shortening can be accelerated by environmental stressors, and has been linked to later-life declines in survival and reproduction. We also assayed nitric oxide, as an additional metric of physiological stress, and determined fledging success. Change in body condition between day 8 and 15 differed according to treatment. Nestlings exposed to ALAN displayed a trend towards a decline in condition, whereas control nestlings displayed a trend towards increased condition. This pattern was driven by a greater increase in tarsus length relative to mass in nestlings exposed to ALAN. Nestlings in poorer condition and nestlings that were smaller than their nest mates had shorter telomeres. However, exposure to ALAN was unrelated to telomere shortening, and also had no effect on nitric oxide concentrations or fledging success. Thus, exposure to ALAN may not have led to sufficient stress to induce telomere shortening. Indeed, plasticity in other physiological systems could allow nestlings to maintain telomere length despite moderate stress. Alternatively, the cascade of physiological and behavioral responses associated with light exposure may have no net effect on telomere dynamics.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2161
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Author Kienast, F.; Weiss, M.
Title Wie Lichtemissionen den Schweizer Wald seit 1992 erhellen Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen Abbreviated Journal Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen
Volume 170 Issue 1 Pages 18-23
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract How light emissions have been lighting up the Swiss forest since 1992

Light emissions increasingly light up the night sky. Worldwide and in Switzerland, there has been a marked increase over the last 20 to 30 years. This is problematic for biological-ecological and health reasons as well as for cultural reasons. At federal and cantonal level, there are various laws and technical standards governing light emissions. In order to monitor the success of these regulations, it is important to observe night-time brightness over longer periods and within larger areas. In Switzerland, this is done within the framework of the Swiss Landscape Observatory (LABES), which provides time series for night-time observations for the years 1992 to 2012. The present work uses satellite images to investigate the extent to which the Swiss forests are lighted up by nocturnal emissions from surrounding residential areas and infrastructures. It also examines the differences between the forest and open land (meadows, fields and remote areas far away from settlements above the treeline) and how the forested area without any detectable artificial light developed between 1992 and 2012. It is shown that the Swiss forests are more and more lighted up by surrounding light sources. With the exception of the Jura, night-time brightness in forest areas is even higher than in open land, which in the present study is dominated by areas above the treeline. The results can be explained by the relative proximity of the forest to residential areas. On the Plateau the last patch of forest without any detectable artificial light during the night disappeared in 2001, and in the Jura mountains in 2010: in the Alps there are still between 4% (Western Central Alps) and 16% (Southern Alps) forest areas without any detectable artificial light during night time. The last large dark areas are, however, not found in the forested area, but in the areas above the treeline. They should be given adequate protection against illumination, for example with large protection areas (“dark sky parks”).

Wie Lichtemissionen den Schweizer Wald seit 1992 erhellen

Lichtemissionen erhellen den Nachthimmel immer mehr. Weltweit und in der Schweiz ist in den letzten 20 bis 30 Jahren eine starke Zunahme festzustellen. Dies ist sowohl aus biologisch-ökologischen und gesundheitlichen als auch aus kulturellen Gründen problematisch. Auf Bundes- und Kantonsebene gibt es verschiedene Gesetze und technische Normen, welche die Lichtemissionen regeln. Für die Erfolgskontrolle dieser Vorschriften ist es wichtig, die Nachthelligkeit über längere Zeiträume und grössere Gebiete zu beobachten. Dies geschieht in der Schweiz im Rahmen der Landschaftsbeobachtung Schweiz (LABES), die für die Jahre 1992 bis 2012 Zeitserien zur Nachthelligkeit zur Verfügung stellt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird anhand von Satellitenbildern untersucht, wie stark der Schweizer Wald durch Lichtemissionen der umliegenden Siedlungen und Infrastrukturen aufgehellt wird, welche Unterschiede zum Offenland (Wiesen, Felder und siedlungsferne Gebiete über der Waldgrenze) bestehen und wie sich die Fläche des nachtdunklen Waldes zwischen 1992 und 2012 entwickelt hat. Es zeigt sich, dass die Schweizer Wälder zunehmend durch umliegende Lichtquellen aufgehellt sind. Mit Ausnahme des Juras ist die Nachthelligkeit in Waldgebieten sogar höher als im Offenland, das in der vorliegenden Untersuchung flächenmässig durch die Gebiete über der Waldgrenze dominiert wird. Die Resultate können mit der relativen Siedlungsnähe des Waldes erklärt werden. Während es im Mittelland ab 2001 und im Jura ab 2010 keine nachtdunklen Waldflächen mehr gibt, findet man in den Alpen je nach Region noch zwischen 4% (westliche Zentralalpen) und 16% (Alpensüdflanke) völlig nachtdunkle Waldflächen, d.h. Waldflächen ohne menschlichen Lichteinfluss. Die letzten grossen, völlig nachtdunklen Flächen liegen aber nicht im Waldareal, sondern in den Gebieten über der Waldgrenze. Sie sollten gegen Aufhellung besonders geschützt werden, zum Beispiel mit grossflächigen Schutzgebieten («dark sky parks»).

Comment les émissions lumineuses éclairent la forêt suisse depuis 1992

Le ciel nocturne est de plus en plus éclairé par les émissions lumineuses. On constate dans le monde entier et en Suisse une forte progression des émissions lumineuses ces dernières 20 à 30 années. Ceci est problématique aussi bien pour des raisons bioécologiques et sanitaires que culturelles. Différentes lois et normes techniques, aux niveaux de la Confédération et des cantons, règlent les émissions lumineuses. Il est important d'observer la clarté nocturne sur de longues périodes et de larges régions afin de contrôler le succès de ces mesures. Ceci est réalisé dans le cadre de l'Observation du paysage suisse (OPS) qui met à disposition des séries de données sur les émissions lumineuses pour les années 1992 à 2012. Ce travail examine à l'aide d'images satellites à quel point la forêt suisse est éclairée par les émissions lumineuses nocturnes issues des zones habitées et des infrastructures environnantes, les différences existantes avec les zones ouvertes (prés, champs et zones éloignées des habitats au-delà de la forêt) et comment se sont développées les surfaces nocturnes sombres de la forêt entre 1992 et 2012. Il est démontré que les forêts suisses sont de plus en plus éclairées par les sources lumineuses environnantes. A l'exception du Jura, la clarté nocturne est même plus importante en forêt que dans les surfaces ouvertes, qui dans cette étude sont essentiellement composées de surfaces au-delà de la forêt. Les résultats peuvent être expliqués par la proximité de la forêt avec les zones habitées. Alors qu'il n'existe plus de surfaces forestières sombres la nuit depuis 2001 sur le Plateau et 2010 dans le Jura, il existe encore dans les Alpes selon la région, 4% (Alpes centrales occidentales) et 16% (versant sud des Alpes), de surfaces forestières sombres durant la nuit, c'est à dire des surfaces forestières sans influence lumineuse anthropogénique. Les dernières grandes surfaces totalement sombres durant la nuit ne se situent toutefois pas en forêt, mais au-delà de la forêt. Elles devraient être protégées contre les émissions lumineuses, par exemple avec des grandes réserves («dark sky parks»).
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0036-7818 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2165
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Author Boyce, P.R.
Title The benefits of light at night Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Society; Conservation
Abstract The use of light at night continues to increase. Simply put, this is because without light we are deprived of our premier sense, vision. By enabling vision the use of light at night delivers a number of benefits to people. Such benefits include greater safety for pedestrians and drivers, reduced fear of crime, more use of outdoor facilities after dark, enhanced economic growth and the creation of built and natural environments that are a source of beauty and entertainment. This suggests that the use of light at night is linked to some very basic human motivations which in turn means that people value such benefits and will not willingly abandon them. Fortunately, careful lighting design, soundly-based outdoor lighting standards and new lighting and sensor technology offer the possibility of providing the benefits of light at night while minimizing the impact on the environment.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2171
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Author Zhang, P.; Pan, J.; Xie, L.; Zhou, T.; Bai, H.; Zhu, Y.
Title Spatial–Temporal Evolution and Regional Differentiation Features of Urbanization in China from 2003 to 2013 Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information Abbreviated Journal Ijgi
Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 31
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Quantifying the temporal and spatial patterns of impervious surfaces (IS) is important for assessing the environmental and ecological impacts of urbanization. In order to better extract IS, and to explore the divergence in urbanization in different regions, research on the regional differentiation features and regional change difference features of IS are required. To extract China’s 2013 urban impervious area, we used the 2013 night light (NTL) data and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) temporal series data, and used three urban impervious surface extraction indexes—Human Settlements Index, Vegetation-Adjusted NTL Urban Index, and the EVI-adjusted NTL index (EANTLI)—which are recognized as the best and most widely used indexes for extracting urban impervious areas. We used the classification results of the Landsat-8 images as the benchmark data to visually compare and verify the results of the urban impervious area extracted by the three indexes. We determined that the EANTLI index better reflects the distribution of the impervious area. Therefore, we used the EANTLI index to extract the urban impervious area from 2003 to 2013 in the study area, and researched the spatial and temporal differentiation in urban IS. The results showed that China’s urban IS area was 70,179.06 km2, accounting for 0.73% of the country’s land area in 2013, compared with 20,565.24 km2 in 2003, which accounted for 0.21% of the land area, representing an increase of 0.52%. On a spatial scale, like economic development, the distribution of urban impervious surfaces was different in different regions. The overall performance of the urban IS percentage was characterized by a decreasing trend from Northwest China, Southwest China, the Middle Reaches of the Yellow River, Northeast China, the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Southern Coastal China, and Northern Coastal China to Eastern Coastal China. On the provincial scale, the urban IS expansion showed considerable differences in different regions. The overall performance of the Urban IS Expansion index showed that the eastern coastal areas had higher values than the western inland areas. The cities or provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Jiangsu, and Shanghai had the largest growth in impervious areas. Spatially and temporally quantifying the change in urban impervious areas can help to better understand the intensity of urbanization in a region. Therefore, quantifying the change in urban impervious area has an important role in the study of regional environmental and economic development, policy formulation, and the rational use of resources in both time and space.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2220-9964 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2172
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