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Author Mireku, M.O.; Barker, M.M.; Mutz, J.; Dumontheil, I.; Thomas, M.S.C.; Roosli, M.; Elliott, P.; Toledano, M.B.
Title Night-time screen-based media device use and adolescents' sleep and health-related quality of life Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Environment International Abbreviated Journal Environ Int
Volume 124 Issue Pages 66-78
Keywords Human Health
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the relationship between night-time screen-based media devices (SBMD) use, which refers to use within 1h before sleep, in both lit and dark rooms, and sleep outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 11 to 12-year-olds. METHODS: We analysed baseline data from a large cohort of 6616 adolescents from 39 schools in and around London, United Kingdom, participating in the Study of Cognition Adolescents and Mobile Phone (SCAMP). Adolescents self-reported their use of any SBMD (mobile phone, tablet, laptop, television etc.). Sleep variables were derived from self-reported weekday and/or weekend bedtime, sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake time. Sleep quality was assessed using four standardised dimensions from the Swiss Health Survey. HRQoL was estimated using the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire. RESULTS: Over two-thirds (71.5%) of adolescents reported using at least one SBMD at night-time, and about a third (32.2%) reported using mobile phones at night-time in darkness. Night-time mobile phone and television use was associated with higher odds of insufficient sleep duration on weekdays (Odds Ratio, OR=1.82, 95% Confidence Interval, CI [1.59, 2.07] and OR=1.40, 95% CI [1.23, 1.60], respectively). Adolescents who used mobile phones in a room with light were more likely to have insufficient sleep (OR=1.32, 95% CI [1.10, 1.60]) and later sleep midpoint (OR=1.64, 95% CI [1.37, 1.95]) on weekends compared to non-users. The magnitude of these associations was even stronger for those who used mobile phones in darkness for insufficient sleep duration on weekdays (OR=2.13, 95% CI [1.79, 2.54]) and for later sleep midpoint on weekdays (OR=3.88, 95% CI [3.25, 4.62]) compared to non-users. Night-time use of mobile phones was associated with lower HRQoL and use in a dark room was associated with even lower KIDSCREEN-10 score (beta=-1.18, 95% CI [-1.85, -0.52]) compared to no use. CONCLUSIONS: We found consistent associations between night-time SBMD use and poor sleep outcomes and worse HRQoL in adolescents. The magnitude of these associations was stronger when SBMD use occurred in a dark room versus a lit room.
Address MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards at King's College London, a Partnership with Public Health England, and collaboration with Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK. Electronic address: m.toledano@imperial.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0160-4120 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30640131 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2181
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Author Caorsi, V.; Sprau, P.; Zollinger, S.A.; Brumm, H.
Title Nocturnal resting behaviour in urban great tits and its relation to anthropogenic disturbance and microclimate Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav Ecol Sociobiol
Volume 73 Issue 2 Pages
Keywords Animals
Abstract The ecological novelty of urbanisation poses many challenges to animals. We investigated whether anthropogenic disturbance (artificial light at night and noise) and abiotic factors in cities (temperature and humidity) predict nocturnal activity and rest in free-living urban great tits (Parus major). Our study is the first to relate nocturnal rest in wild birds to levels of noise pollution during the night, an issue that has been shown to be particularly damaging to human health. Unlike previous work on nocturnal behaviour of urban birds, we considered the combined effect of anthropogenic disturbance and urban microclimate to acknowledge that the umwelt of an animal is composed of multiple environmental variables. Using infrared cameras, we observed the nocturnal resting behaviour as a proxy for sleep in 17 birds in nest boxes deployed across the city of Munich, Germany. Although we found marked differences in resting behaviour between individuals, this variation was not related to the measured environmental factors. This finding contrasts earlier studies that reported nocturnal resting behaviour of birds to vary with temperature and light exposure. Although we did not find evidence that urban environmental factors disrupt resting behaviour in great tits, their sleep might still be impaired by the anthropogenic disturbances. To elucidate this issue, further studies are necessary that, for instance, measure brain activity.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0340-5443 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2185
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Author Prayag, A.S.; Najjar, R.P.; Gronfier, C.
Title Melatonin suppression is exquisitely sensitive to light and primarily driven by melanopsin in humans Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Light elicits a range of non-visual responses in humans. Driven predominantly by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), but also by rods and/or cones, these responses include melatonin suppression. A sigmoidal relationship has been established between melatonin suppression and light intensity, however photoreceptoral involvement remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we first modelled the relationships between alpha-opic illuminances and melatonin suppression using an extensive dataset by Brainard and colleagues. Our results show that 1) melatonin suppression is better predicted by melanopic illuminance compared to other alpha-opic illuminances, 2) melatonin suppression is predicted to occur at levels as low as ~1.5 melanopic lux (melanopsin-weighted irradiance 0.2 muW/cm(2)), 3) saturation occurs at 305 melanopic lux (melanopsin-weighted irradiance 36.6 muW/cm(2)). We then tested this melanopsin-weighted illuminance response model derived from Brainard and colleagues' data and show that it predicts equally well melatonin suppression data from our laboratory, although obtained using different intensities and exposure duration. DISCUSSION: Together, our findings suggest that melatonin suppression by monochromatic lights is predominantly driven by melanopsin, and that it can be initiated at extremely low melanopic lux levels in experimental conditions. This emphasizes the concern of the non-visual impacts of low light intensities in lighting design and light-emitting devices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Address Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Integrative Physiology of the Brain Arousal Systems, Waking team, Inserm UMRS 1028, CNRS UMR 5292, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, France
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30697806 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2186
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Author Jechow, A.; Holker, F.; Kyba, C.C.M.
Title Using all-sky differential photometry to investigate how nocturnal clouds darken the night sky in rural areas Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 1391
Keywords Skyglow; differential photometry; clouds; sky brightness
Abstract Artificial light at night has affected most of the natural nocturnal landscapes worldwide and the subsequent light pollution has diverse effects on flora, fauna and human well-being. To evaluate the environmental impacts of light pollution, it is crucial to understand both the natural and artificial components of light at night under all weather conditions. The night sky brightness for clear skies is relatively well understood and a reference point for a lower limit is defined. However, no such reference point exists for cloudy skies. While some studies have examined the brightening of the night sky by clouds in urban areas, the published data on the (natural) darkening by clouds is very sparse. Knowledge of reference points for the illumination of natural nocturnal environments however, is essential for experimental design and ecological modeling to assess the impacts of light pollution. Here we use differential all-sky photometry with a commercial digital camera to investigate how clouds darken sky brightness at two rural sites. The spatially resolved data enables us to identify and study the nearly unpolluted parts of the sky and to set an upper limit on ground illumination for overcast nights at sites without light pollution.
Address GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Remote Sensing, Telegrafenberg, 14473, Potsdam, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30718668; PMCID:PMC6361923 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2188
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Author Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Aubé, M.; Zamorano, J.; Cardiel, N.; Tapia, C.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Colour remote sensing of the impact of artificial light at night (I): The potential of the International Space Station and other DSLR-based platforms Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment
Volume 224 Issue Pages 92-103
Keywords Remote Sensing; Instrumentation
Abstract Sensors on remote sensing satellites have provided useful tools for evaluation of the environmental impacts of nighttime artificial light pollution. However, due to their panchromatic nature, the data available from these sensors (VIIRS/DNB and DMSP/OLS) has a limited capacity accurately to assess this impact. Moreover, in some cases, recorded variations can be misleading. Until new satellite platforms and sensors are available, only nighttime images taken with DSLR cameras from the International Space Station (ISS), airplanes, balloons or other such platforms can provide the required information. Here we describe a theoretical approach using colour-colour diagrams to analyse images taken by astronauts on the ISS to estimate spatial and temporal variation in the spectrum of artificial lighting emissions. We then evaluate how this information can be used to determine effects on some key environmental indices: photopic vision, the Melatonin Suppression Index, the Star Light Index, the Induced Photosynthesis Index, production of NO2-NO radicals, energy efficiency and CO2 emissions, and Correlated Colour Temperature. Finally, we use the city of Milan as a worked example of the approach.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2189
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