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Author Kolbe, J. J.; Moniz, H. A.; Lapiedra, O.; Thawley, C. J.
Title Bright lights, big city: an experimental assessment of short-term behavioral and performance effects of artificial light at night on Anolis lizards Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Urban Ecosystems Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords Animals
Abstract With urbanization expanding into natural areas, it is increasingly important to understand how species subject to human-induced habitat alteration respond to novel opportunities and stressors. A pervasive consequence of urbanization is artificial light at night (ALAN), which previous studies have found introduces both costs and benefits for vertebrates. This understanding, however, primarily reflects findings from laboratory-controlled experiments or comparisons of wild populations in areas with long- standing differences in ALAN regimes. Here, we investigated the short-term costs and benefits for Anolis lizards during the period of initial exposure to ALAN using realistic light levels for urban areas (mean ± SD = 87.9 ± 36.7 lx at a distance of 3 m). As compared to controls, we hypothesized that adding ALAN would result in behavioral and physiological changes over the short term for brown anoles and their arthropod prey. In contrast to predictions, ALAN did not increase arthropod abundance or extend anole activity into the night. Structural habitat and sleep site use changed little in response to ALAN, which exposed about one-third of sleeping anoles in ALAN plots to light at night due to our manipulation. However, this direct light exposure resulted in lizards being more easily roused from sleep compared to lizards sleeping in the dark in control plots or in shadows in ALAN plots. The apparent inability of some anoles to adjust their sleep sites to avoid ALAN exposure may have contributed to their increased responsiveness at night and decreased locomotor endurance in the day. Our study suggests brown anoles can experi- ence higher short-term costs than benefits during initial exposure to ALAN.
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Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3435
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Author Canazei, M.; Staggl, S.; Pohl, W.; Schüler, S.; Betz, D.; Ottersbach, J.; Popp, R.
Title Feasibility and acute alerting effects of a daylight-supplementing in-vehicle lighting system – Results from two randomised controlled field studies during dawn and dusk Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2021 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords Physiology; Human health
Abstract The present studies examined the feasibility and acute alerting effects of additional in-vehicle lighting within a passenger car. These factors were examined during morning driving (Study 1) and evening driving (Study 2). In a balanced within-subjects design, 37 participants drove a test car two times in the morning or in the evening. The test vehicle was equipped with either a daylight-supplementing interior lighting system or a placebo system, which participants were told would refresh the air. Both studies used identical protocols, and participants participated either in Study 1 (n = 18) or Study 2 (n = 19). In both studies, corneal illuminance levels were recorded while driving. Feasibility of the systems was assessed using subjective ratings. Efficacy outcomes were spindle rates in the alpha bandwidth of electroencephalogram recordings, performance on a psychomotor vigilance task and subjective sleepiness ratings. In both studies, daylight-supplementing significantly increased corneal illuminances while driving and did not cause any negative visual side-effects. Study 1 revealed lower spindle rates while driving under daylight-supplementing lighting, indicating that drivers had higher physiological alertness when exposed to additional light in the morning. This alerting effect of daylight-supplementing lighting, however, was not observed in Study 2. In both studies, performance on the psychomotor vigilance task as well as subjective sleepiness ratings did not significantly differ between the experimental conditions. The present studies provide novel evidence for the feasibility and positive impact of daylight-supplementing in-vehicle lighting systems on the physiological alertness of drivers under naturalistic driving conditions. Further studies are warranted to evaluate carry-over effects of increased alertness on road safety measures.
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Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3437
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Author Ren, Z.; Liu, Y.; Chen, B.; Xu, B.
Title Where Does Nighttime Light Come From? Insights from Source Detection and Error Attribution Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 12 Issue 12 Pages 1922
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract Nighttime light remote sensing has aroused great popularity because of its advantage in estimating socioeconomic indicators and quantifying human activities in response to the changing world. Despite many advances that have been made in method development and implementation of nighttime light remote sensing over the past decades, limited studies have dived into answering the question: Where does nighttime light come from? This hinders our capability of identifying specific sources of nighttime light in urbanized regions. Addressing this shortcoming, here we proposed a parcel-oriented temporal linear unmixing method (POTLUM) to identify specific nighttime light sources with the integration of land use data. Ratio of root mean square error was used as the measure to assess the unmixing accuracy, and parcel purity index and source sufficiency index were proposed to attribute unmixing errors. Using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime light dataset from the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite and the newly released Essential Urban Land Use Categories in China (EULUC-China) product, we applied the proposed method and conducted experiments in two China cities with different sizes, Shanghai and Quzhou. Results of the POTLUM showed its relatively robust applicability of detecting specific nighttime light sources, achieving an rRMSE of 3.38% and 1.04% in Shanghai and Quzhou, respectively. The major unmixing errors resulted from using impure land parcels as endmembers (i.e., parcel purity index for Shanghai and Quzhou: 54.48%, 64.09%, respectively), but it also showed that predefined light sources are sufficient (i.e., source sufficiency index for Shanghai and Quzhou: 96.53%, 99.55%, respectively). The method presented in this study makes it possible to identify specific sources of nighttime light and is expected to enrich the estimation of structural socioeconomic indicators, as well as better support various applications in urban planning and management.
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ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3032
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Author Wuchterl, G.; Reithofer, M.
Title Licht über Wien VII Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Skyglow; Energy
Abstract 231. Auf einen BlickDie Helligkeit des Wiener Nachthimmels hat sich stabilisiert. 2019 ist das zweite Jahr in Folge, in dem die Energie desLichts über Wien um weniger als 5 % zugenommen hat. Die Menge des künstlichen Lichts über Wien hat sich nach dem steilem Anstieg der Jahre 2009 bis 2014 auf hohem Niveau eingependelt..Es besteht ein enger Zusammenhang zwischen Licht- und Luftverschmutzung. Über 10 Jahre bestehende Korrelationen von Lichtimmissions- und Luftgüteindikatoren bestätigen dies. Auf dieser Erkenntnis beruht eine auf standardisierte Luft-güte-Bedingungen normierte Angabe der Globalstrahlung, mit der direkter auf die von der Stadt eingebrachten Lichtmenge geschlossen werden kann.Der Kunstlichthalo über Wien wurde mit einer neuen Methode vollständiger berechnet und enthält demnach deutlich mehr Energie als bisher angenommen. 500 Gigawattstunden und 100.000 Tonnen CO2-Äquivalent pro Jahr müssen als typischer Wert für eine Untergrenze angenommen werden.
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Publisher Verein Kuffner-Sternwarte Place of Publication Vienna Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3033
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Author Sanders, D.; Frago, E.; Kehoe, R.; Patterson, C.; Gaston, K.J.
Title A meta-analysis of biological impacts of artificial light at night Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Nat Ecol Evol
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Ecology; meta-analysis; biology
Abstract Natural light cycles are being eroded over large areas of the globe by the direct emissions and sky brightening that result from sources of artificial night-time light. This is predicted to affect wild organisms, particularly because of the central role that light regimes play in determining the timing of biological activity. Although many empirical studies have reported such effects, these have focused on particular species or local communities and have thus been unable to provide a general evaluation of the overall frequency and strength of these impacts. Using a new database of published studies, we show that exposure to artificial light at night induces strong responses for physiological measures, daily activity patterns and life history traits. We found particularly strong responses with regards to hormone levels, the onset of daily activity in diurnal species and life history traits, such as the number of offspring, predation, cognition and seafinding (in turtles). So far, few studies have focused on the impact of artificial light at night on ecosystem functions. The breadth and often strength of biological impacts we reveal highlight the need for outdoor artificial night-time lighting to be limited to the places and forms-such as timing, intensity and spectrum-where it is genuinely required by the people using it to minimize ecological impacts.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK.; k.j.gaston ( at ) exeter.ac.uk
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Publisher Nature Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 2397-334X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:33139919 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3197
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