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Author Pike, R; Berry, R
Title A Bright Future for the Night Sky Type Magazine Article
Year (up) 1978 Publication Sky and Telescope Abbreviated Journal
Volume 55 Issue February Pages 126
Keywords Skyglow
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1549
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Author Sheehan, R.E.; Carovillano, R.L.
Title Characteristics of the Equatorward Auroral Boundary Near Midnight Determined from DMSP Images Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1978 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res.
Volume 83 Issue A10 Pages 4749-4754
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The latitude of the equatorward auroral boundary near local midnight has been determined for 162 Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) images in November‐December 1972. When grouped according to Kp and AE, these observations show approximate linear decreases in the average boundary latitude with increasing values of these magnetic indices. There appears also to be a slight diurnal variation in the boundary location. Mapping of the appropriate McIlwain injection boundaries to auroral latitudes shows good agreement with the average DMSP equatorward auroral boundary latitude. Similar analyses at 2000 and 2200 CGLT (corrected geomagnetic local time) using a different set of DMSP images yield similar results, with somewhat poorer agreement under quiet conditions.
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ISSN 0148-0227 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2386
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Author Hoffmann, K.
Title Photoperiod, Pineal, Melatonin and Reproduction in Hamsters Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1979 Publication Progress in Brain Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume 52 Issue Pages 397–415
Keywords Animals
Abstract This chapter discusses the experiments done on male hamsters. It should be noted, however, that corresponding results have been obtained in females in nearly all cases, regardless of whether photoperiodic effects, the results after pineal manipulations or after application of melatonin are considered. Many mammalian species show a marked annual cycle of gonadal and other functions. In a number of cases it has been shown that the photoperiod, that is, the length of the daily light cycle and its changes, are involved in the regulation of this cycle. The pineal has been shown to participate in the transduction of photoperiodic effects of short photoperiods leading to regression and also of long photoperiods stimulating recrudescence. The latter effect is not only a suppression of antigonadotrophic effects from the pineal, but a positive stimulation. The exact role of melatonin in the photoperiodic mechanism and its site of action are still unclear. Strong effects of melatonin application have been found in photoperiodic mammals. Recent experiments suggest that not only the amount of melatonin, but its pattern of synthesis and release may be important in the conveyance of photoperiodic effects. No support for the assumption that the site of action of melatonin is the pineal itself has been found in experiments with pinealectomized animals.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 424
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Author Hoffmann, K.
Title Photoperiodic effects in the Djungarian hamster: one minute of light during darktime mimics influence of long photoperiods on testicular recrudescence, body weight and pelage colour Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1979 Publication Experientia Abbreviated Journal Experientia
Volume 35 Issue 11 Pages 1529-1530
Keywords Animals
Abstract In male Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) short photoperiods (L/D 8/16) with additional 1- or 5-min light-pulses 8 h after light-off were as effective as long photoperiods (L/D 16/8) in stimulating testicular recrudescence, increase in body weight and moult into summer pelage. The results are discussed with regard to the hypothesis that the pattern of melatonin release from the pineal gland is important in mediating photoperiodic effects in mammals.
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ISSN 0014-4754 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 425
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Author Croft, T.A.
Title The brightness of lights on Earth at night, digitally recorded by DMSP satellite Type Report
Year (up) 1979 Publication USGS Numbered Series Abbreviated Journal
Volume 80-167 Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing
Abstract The U.S. Air Force has operated its Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) for nearly a decade, and film images from the system have been openly available since 1973. Films are well suited for the study of weather, and users of such films have derived much useful data. For many potential remote sensing applications, however, a quantitative measurement of the brightness of the imaged light patterns is needed, and it cannot be extracted with adequte accuracy from the films. Such information is contained in the telemetry from the spacecraft and is retained on digital tapes, which store the images for a few days while they await filming. For practical reasons, it has not heretofore been feasible for the Air Force to provide a remote-sensing user with these digital data, and the quantitative brightness information has been lost with the erasure of tapes for re-use.

For the purpose of evaluation of tapes as a means for remote sensing, the Air Force recently did provide to the author six examples containing records of nighttime DMSP imagery similar to that which has previously 1 been evaluated by SRI International in a film format. The digital data create many new applications for these images, owing to a combination of several factors, the most important of which are the preservation of photometric information and of full spatial resolution. In this evaluation, stress has been placed upon determination of the broad potential value of the data rather than the full exploitation of any one aspect of it. The effort was guided by an objective to develop handling methods for the vast body of numbers--methods which will be practical for use in a research or engineering environment where budgets are limited, and specialized capabilities and image reproduction equipment has not already been developed. We report the degree of success obtained in this effort, pointing out the relative strengths and the relative limitations, as compared to the sophisticated, weather-oriented data processing which is well suited for the Air Force requirements.

Both geometric and photometric calibration methods are evaluated. An image can be considered as a 3-dimensional array, X, Y, Z, in which X and Y are the coordinates of a picture element (pixel) and Z is the brightness at that location. A method of approach to handling these parameters, particularly Y and Z, is developed in a form quite different from that which serves the operational applications.

The user of digital data will need the film images which are generated by the Air Force from the same data as is provided on digital tape. In the first stages of analysis, the films provide both a convenient index and a guide to identification of large patterns in the data. Additionally, the infrared (8 to 13 0 film provides a valuable indicator of cloud cover.

Two general conclusions are drawn from this study. Firstly, the digital DMSP data have great potential value but their cost, in terms of the interruption of the present operational routine, is quite high. Therefore, if a program is undertaken to provide for the open availability of an archive of digital records, great care must be exercised in selecting only those records which have unusually high value in order that the effort will be cost-effective. Secondly, it is concluded that several aspects of the program, well designed for Air Force operational purposes, are not adapted to earth-sensing needs. This is probably inevitable, since the two applications are largely different and in some ways incompatible. For example, the nighttime visual sensor saturates in the center of major cities and in moderately large fires (such as gas flares). This saturation prevents the analyst from integrating photometric parameters. For weather observation, this inability is unimportant, and acceptance of such saturation makes feasible a decrease in the data rate.

Such limitations in the data will probably be overcome only through modifying the existing system or the implementation of a similar system designed specifically to serve earth-sensing needs.
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2384
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