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Author Garstang, R. H.
Title Improved scattering formula for calculations of artificial night-sky illumination Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1984 Publication The Observatory Abbreviated Journal
Volume 104 Issue Pages 196-197
Keywords Skyglow
Abstract In recent years there has been increased interest in measuring the artificial illumination produced in the night sky cities of various sizes at a range of distances from the observer. Examples of such measurements include the work of Treanor on three Italian cities, that of Walker on the cities of various sized in California, and a study by Berry of light pollution in Southern Ontario. There seem to have been few attempts to provide theoretical interpretations of these measurements other than that contained in the paper by Treanor. He developed a simple empirical formula (his equation (6)) for the zenith brigthness due to a distant city as a function of the distance of the observer from the city. Treanor's formula was used by Berry, with a modification which we mention later.

Treanor based his formula on a very ingenious method of estimating the contribution to the zenith brightness of aerosol scattering between the city, treated as a point source, and an element of the atmosphere in the direction of the observer's zenith. Readers are referred to Treanor's paper for details of his derivation. We give here a simple extension of his work which leads to a scattering formula valid under less restrictive assumptions.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2638
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Author Brainard, G.C.; Lewy, A.J.; Menaker, M.; Fredrickson, R.H.; Miller, L.S.; Weleber, R.G.; Cassone, V.; Hudson, D.
Title Effect of Light Wavelength on the Suppression of Nocturnal Plasma Melatonin in Normal Volunteersa Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1985 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal
Volume 453 Issue 1 Pages 376-378
Keywords Human Health
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 723
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Author Verheijen, F.J.
Title Photopollution: artificial light optic spatial control systems fail to cope with. Incidents, causation, remedies. Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1985 Publication Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 44 Issue 1 Pages 1-18
Keywords Ecology
Abstract The term photopollution is proposed for artificial light having adverse effects on wildlife. The differences between natural and artificial light are discussed in relation to the concepts of orientation, disorientation, misorientation and abnormal orientation. The ways in which optic orientation systems are attuned to natural illumination conditions are analysed, and it is shown why they therefore may fail to cope with artificial light. It is concluded that for many nocturnally active animals a natural light-field between sunset and sunrise is a requirement for survival. A review is given of data on a) bird kills at man-made lighted obstacles, and b) the interference of artificial light with nest site selection by female sea turtles and water-finding by hatchlings at nesting beaches. Conventional remedies against the hazards of photopollution are critically reviewed and new ones are suggested. It is emphasized that measures should aim not only at reducing threats to a species or population but also at preventing suffering in individual animals.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 851
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Author Alberts, E.,
Title Straßenbeleuchtung im Gespräch. Historisch, nostalgisch oder zweckmäßig Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1985 Publication LICHT Abbreviated Journal
Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 266–271
Keywords History
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 984
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Author Bouman, M.J.
Title City Lights and City Life: a Study of Technology and Urbanity Type Journal Article
Year (up) 1985 Publication Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Society
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1004
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