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Author Xavier Kerola, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Modelling artificial night-sky brightness with a polarized multiple scattering radiative transfer computer code: Modelling artificial night-sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 365 Issue 4 Pages 1295-1299  
  Keywords Skyglow; modeling; radiative transfer; Gauss-Seidel; light pollution; Garstang model  
  Abstract As part of an ongoing investigation of radiative effects produced by hazy atmospheres, computational procedures have been developed for use in determining the brightening of the night sky as a result of urban illumination. The downwardly and upwardly directed radiances of multiply scattered light from an offending metropolitan source are computed by a straightforward Gauss-Seidel (G-S) iterative technique applied directly to the integrated form of Chandrasekhar's vectorized radiative transfer equation. Initial benchmark night-sky brightness tests of the present G-S model using fully consistent optical emission and extinction input parameters yield very encouraging results when compared with the double scattering treatment of Garstang, the only full-fledged previously available model.  
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  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 278  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fouquet, R.; Pearson, P.J. url  openurl
  Title Seven centuries of energy services: The price and use of light in the United Kingdom (1300-2000) Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Energy Journal Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 27 Issue Pages 139-177  
  Keywords Energy; Economics  
  Abstract Before the mid-eighteenth century, most people lived in near-complete

darkness except in the presence of sunlight and moonlight. Since then, the provision

of artificial light has been revolutionised by a series of innovations in appliances,

fuels, infrastructures and institutions that have enabled the growing demands of

economic development for artificial light to be met at dramatically lower costs:

by the year 2000, while United Kingdom GDP per capita was 15 times its 1800

value, lighting services cost less than one three thousandth of their 1800 value,

per capita use was 6,500 times greater and total lighting consumption was 25,000

times higher than in 1800. The economic history of light shows how focussing on

developments in energy service provision rather than simply on energy use and

prices can reveal the ‘true’ declines in costs, enhanced levels of consumption

and welfare gains that have been achieved. While emphasising the value of past

experience, the paper also warns against the dangers of over-reliance on past

trends for the long-run forecasting of energy consumption given the potential for the

introduction of new technologies and fuels, and for rebound and saturation effects.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 441  
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Author Marchant, P.R. url  openurl
  Title Investigating whether a crime reduction measure works Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 91 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Crime is a serious business. It causes great distress and fear. It costs a lot

to deal with its consequences. In these regards crime shares much with

the problem of ill-health and disease. The application of sound science and

statistics has allowed great strides to be made in dealing with problems of

ill health. Medical statistics is one of the recognised, established

disciplines involved in researching healthcare.

The parallels between research in crime reduction and in healthcare do

appear to differ in terms of quality. Although there is still room for

considerable improvement in researching health-care, an investigation

into the underpinning of statistical methods used indicates that the

problems are substantially worse in the study of crime. The consideration

given to statistics in crime studies seems rather flimsy, yet important

claims are made which are statistical at source and may affect policy, and

so can have considerable costs attached. Therefore, for example, it is

important to know whether the underlying crime level has really changed,

rather than just being the result of perhaps sampling variation or some

artefact giving rise to statistical bias or systematic error. This is necessary

when trying to determine whether a Crime Reduction Intervention (CRI)

has actually worked.

I started examining the scientific basis of the claim for the effectiveness for

one particular CRI, basically because I was concerned about negative side

effects and I thought the claim implausible. I remain concerned and

unconvinced. The statistical issues and concerns I raise apply also to

investigating other CRIs and to existing published analyses.

This piece extends work presented in Marchant (2006); earlier work on the

statistical issues involved can be found in Marchant (2005a, b; 2004).
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 452  
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Author Rich, C.; Longcore, T.; editors url  openurl
  Title Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Island Press. Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Ecology  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 479  
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Author Laaksonen, J.; Laaksonen, T.; Itämies, J.; Rytkönen, S.; Välimäki, P. url  openurl
  Title A new efficient bait-trap model for Lepidoptera surveys – the “ Oulu ” model. Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Entomologica Fennica Abbreviated Journal (up)  
  Volume 17 Issue Pages 153–160  
  Keywords Animals  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 607  
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