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Author Marchant, P.R. url  openurl
  Title Investigating whether a crime reduction measure works Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 91 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract (up) Crime is a serious business. It causes great distress and fear. It costs a lot

to deal with its consequences. In these regards crime shares much with

the problem of ill-health and disease. The application of sound science and

statistics has allowed great strides to be made in dealing with problems of

ill health. Medical statistics is one of the recognised, established

disciplines involved in researching healthcare.

The parallels between research in crime reduction and in healthcare do

appear to differ in terms of quality. Although there is still room for

considerable improvement in researching health-care, an investigation

into the underpinning of statistical methods used indicates that the

problems are substantially worse in the study of crime. The consideration

given to statistics in crime studies seems rather flimsy, yet important

claims are made which are statistical at source and may affect policy, and

so can have considerable costs attached. Therefore, for example, it is

important to know whether the underlying crime level has really changed,

rather than just being the result of perhaps sampling variation or some

artefact giving rise to statistical bias or systematic error. This is necessary

when trying to determine whether a Crime Reduction Intervention (CRI)

has actually worked.

I started examining the scientific basis of the claim for the effectiveness for

one particular CRI, basically because I was concerned about negative side

effects and I thought the claim implausible. I remain concerned and

unconvinced. The statistical issues and concerns I raise apply also to

investigating other CRIs and to existing published analyses.

This piece extends work presented in Marchant (2006); earlier work on the

statistical issues involved can be found in Marchant (2005a, b; 2004).
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 452  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Haus, E.; Smolensky, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Biological clocks and shift work: circadian dysregulation and potential long-term effects Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Cancer Causes & Control : CCC Abbreviated Journal Cancer Causes Control  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 489-500  
  Keywords Human Health; Adaptation, Physiological; Animals; Biological Clocks; Cardiovascular Abnormalities/etiology; Chronobiology Disorders/*complications/physiopathology; Chronobiology Phenomena; Humans; Neoplasms/etiology; Occupational Diseases/*etiology; Risk Factors; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/physiopathology; *Work Schedule Tolerance  
  Abstract (up) Long-term epidemiologic studies on large numbers of night and rotating shift workers have suggested an increase in the incidence of breast and colon cancer in these populations. These studies suffer from poor definition and quantification of the work schedules of the exposed subjects. Against this background, the pathophysiology of phase shift and phase adaptation is reviewed. A phase shift as experienced in night and rotating shift work involves desynchronization at the molecular level in the circadian oscillators in the central nervous tissue and in most peripheral tissues of the body. There is a change in the coordination between oscillators with transient loss of control by the master-oscillator (the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, SCN) in the hypothalamus. The implications of the pathophysiology of phase shift are discussed for long-term health effects and for the design of ergonomic work schedules minimizing the adverse health effects upon the worker.  
  Address Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology, University of Minnesota, Health Partners Medical Group, Regions Hospital, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101, USA. Erhard.X.Haus@Healthpartners.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0957-5243 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16596302 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 760  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Muheim, R.; Phillips, J.B.; Akesson, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Polarized light cues underlie compass calibration in migratory songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 313 Issue 5788 Pages 837-839  
  Keywords Alaska; *Animal Migration; Animals; Calibration; Cues; *Flight, Animal; Geography; *Light; Magnetics; *Orientation; Seasons; Sparrows/*physiology; Sunlight  
  Abstract (up) Migratory songbirds use the geomagnetic field, stars, the Sun, and polarized light patterns to determine their migratory direction. To prevent navigational errors, it is necessary to calibrate all of these compass systems to a common reference. We show that migratory Savannah sparrows use polarized light cues from the region of sky near the horizon to recalibrate the magnetic compass at both sunrise and sunset. We suggest that skylight polarization patterns are used to derive an absolute (i.e., geographic) directional system that provides the primary calibration reference for all of the compasses of migratory songbirds.  
  Address Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden. rmuheim@vt.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16902138 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 243  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bullough, J.D.; Rea, M.S.; Figueiro, M.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Of mice and women: light as a circadian stimulus in breast cancer research Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Cancer Causes & Control : CCC Abbreviated Journal Cancer Causes Control  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 375-383  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Breast Neoplasms/*physiopathology; *Circadian Rhythm; *Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; *Light; Light Signal Transduction; Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/*physiopathology; Melatonin/metabolism; Mice; Muridae/metabolism  
  Abstract (up) OBJECTIVE: Nocturnal rodents are frequently used as models in human breast cancer research, but these species have very different visual and circadian systems and, therefore, very different responses to optical radiation or, informally, light. Because of the impact of light on the circadian system and because recent evidence suggests that cancer risk might be related to circadian disruption, it is becoming increasingly clear that optical radiation must be properly characterized for both nocturnal rodents and diurnal humans to make significant progress in unraveling links between circadian disruption and breast cancer. In this paper, we propose a quantitative framework for comparing radiometric and photometric quantities in human and rodent studies. METHODS: We reviewed published research on light as a circadian stimulus for humans and rodents. Both suppression of nocturnal melatonin and phase shifting were examined as outcome measures for the circadian system. RESULTS: The data were used to develop quantitative comparisons regarding the absolute and spectral sensitivity for the circadian systems of humans and nocturnal rodents. CONCLUSIONS: Two models of circadian phototransduction, for mouse and humans, have been published providing spectral sensitivities for these two species. Despite some methodological variations among the studies reviewed, the circadian systems of nocturnal rodents are approximately 10,000 times more sensitive to optical radiation than that of humans. Circadian effectiveness of different sources for both humans and nocturnal rodents are offered together with a scale relating their absolute sensitivities. Instruments calibrated in terms of conventional photometric units (e.g., lux) will not accurately characterize the circadian stimulus for either humans or rodents.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA. bulloj@rpi.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0957-5243 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16596289 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 726  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Figueiro, M.G.; Rea, M.S.; Bullough, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does architectural lighting contribute to breast cancer? Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Carcinogenesis Abbreviated Journal J Carcinog  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages 20  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract (up) OBJECTIVES: There is a growing interest in the role that light plays on nocturnal melatonin production and, perhaps thereby, the incidence of breast cancer in modern societies. The direct causal relationships in this logical chain have not, however, been fully established and the weakest link is an inability to quantitatively specify architectural lighting as a stimulus for the circadian system. The purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to this weakness. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION: We reviewed the literature on the relationship between melatonin, light at night, and cancer risk in humans and tumor growth in animals. More specifically, we focused on the impact of light on nocturnal melatonin suppression in humans and on the applicability of these data to women in real-life situations. Photometric measurement data from the lighted environment of women at work and at home is also reported. DATA SYNTHESIS: The literature review and measurement data demonstrate that more quantitative knowledge is needed about circadian light exposures actually experienced by women and girls in modern societies. CONCLUSION: Without such quantitative knowledge, limited insights can be gained about the causal relationship between melatonin and the etiology of breast cancer from epidemiological studies and from parametric studies using animal models.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street Troy, NY 12180 USA. figuem@rpi.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-3163 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16901343; PMCID:PMC1557490 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 746  
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