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Author Powe, N.A; Willis, K.G.; Garrod, G.D.
Title Difficulties in Valuing Street Light Improvement: Trust, Surprise and Bound Effects Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Applied Economics Abbreviated Journal
Volume 38 Issue (up) 4 Pages 371–381
Keywords Economics
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1055
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Author Raven, J.A.; Cockell, C.S.
Title Influence on photosynthesis of starlight, moonlight, planetlight, and light pollution (reflections on photosynthetically active radiation in the universe) Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Astrobiology Abbreviated Journal Astrobiology
Volume 6 Issue (up) 4 Pages 668-675
Keywords Plants
Abstract Photosynthesis on Earth can occur in a diversity of organisms in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) range of 10 nmol of photons m(-2) s(-1) to 8 mmol of photons m(-2) s(-1). Similar considerations would probably apply to photosynthetic organisms on Earth-like planets (ELPs) in the continuously habitable zone of other stars. On Earth, starlight PAR is inadequate for photosynthetically supported growth. An increase in starlight even to reach the minimum theoretical levels to allow for photosynthesis would require a universe that was approximately ten million times older, or with a ten million times greater density of stars, than is the case for the present universe. Photosynthesis on an ELP using PAR reflected from a natural satellite with the same size as our Moon, but at the Roche limit, could support a low rate of photosynthesis at full Moon. Photosynthesis on an ELP-like satellite of a Jupiter-sized planet using light reflected from the planet could be almost 1% of the rate in full sunlight on Earth when the planet was full. These potential contributions to photosynthesis require that the contribution is compared with the rate of photosynthesis driven by direct radiation from the star. Light pollution on Earth only energizes photosynthesis by organisms that are very close to the light source. However, effects of light pollution on photosynthesis can be more widespread if the photosynthetic canopy is retained for more of the year, caused by effects on photoperiodism, with implications for the influence of civilizations on photosynthesis.
Address Plant Research Unit, University of Dundee at SCRI, Scottish Crop Research Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee, United Kingdom
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ISSN 1557-8070 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:16916290 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1198
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Author Gardner, C.
Title The use and misuse of coloured light in the urban environment Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Optics & Laser Technology Abbreviated Journal Optics & Laser Technology
Volume 38 Issue (up) 4-6 Pages 366-376
Keywords Planning; Society; Psychology
Abstract The last few years have seen a huge increase in the transfer of coloured architectural lighting, derived from entertainment and theatre, into the urban and exterior environment. Part of the reason for this is that in the last 15 yr or so, there have been a number of important introductions in coloured lighting technology. These have transformed lighting practice, and while their widespread introduction is seen by some as an enrichment of the urban fabric, others see it as presenting considerable dangers, in terms of aesthetics, perception and in terms of civic identity. Its negative effects on the urban environment have been termed ‘colour blight’.

In this paper, the range of coloured lighting technologies is surveyed and other causes for the increase in coloured lighting are also discussed, together with the problems and benefits involved. Finally, some tentative means are put forward for resolving the problems caused by ‘colour blight’. Current good practice is illustrated by the author's own experience, including his consultancy's participation in a number of urban lighting strategies in the UK and elsewhere. This work involves implementation of a comprehensive lighting plan for the historic city of York, as part of the Urban Lighting Group consortium of three lighting design practices.
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ISSN 0030-3992 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2183
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Author Amaral, S.; Monteiro, A.M.V.; Camara, G.; Quintanilha, J.A.
Title DMSP/OLS night-time light imagery for urban population estimates in the Brazilian Amazon Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 27 Issue (up) 5 Pages 855-870
Keywords Remote Sensing
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ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 701
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Author Ruger, M.; Gordijn, M.C.M.; Beersma, D.G.M.; de Vries, B.; Daan, S.
Title Time-of-day-dependent effects of bright light exposure on human psychophysiology: comparison of daytime and nighttime exposure Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol
Volume 290 Issue (up) 5 Pages R1413-20
Keywords Human Health; Adult; Body Temperature/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Fatigue/*physiopathology; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Hydrocortisone/*blood; *Light; Sleep Stages/*physiology
Abstract Bright light can influence human psychophysiology instantaneously by inducing endocrine (suppression of melatonin, increasing cortisol levels), other physiological changes (enhancement of core body temperature), and psychological changes (reduction of sleepiness, increase of alertness). Its broad range of action is reflected in the wide field of applications, ranging from optimizing a work environment to treating depressed patients. For optimally applying bright light and understanding its mechanism, it is crucial to know whether its effects depend on the time of day. In this paper, we report the effects of bright light given at two different times of day on psychological and physiological parameters. Twenty-four subjects participated in two experiments (n = 12 each). All subjects were nonsmoking, healthy young males (18-30 yr). In both experiments, subjects were exposed to either bright light (5,000 lux) or dim light <10 lux (control condition) either between 12:00 P.M. and 4:00 P.M. (experiment A) or between midnight and 4:00 A.M. (experiment B). Hourly measurements included salivary cortisol concentrations, electrocardiogram, sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), fatigue, and energy ratings (Visual Analog Scale). Core body temperature was measured continuously throughout the experiments. Bright light had a time-dependent effect on heart rate and core body temperature; i.e., bright light exposure at night, but not in daytime, increased heart rate and enhanced core body temperature. It had no significant effect at all on cortisol. The effect of bright light on the psychological variables was time independent, since nighttime and daytime bright light reduced sleepiness and fatigue significantly and similarly.
Address Department of Chronobiology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. Melanie.Rueger@med.nyu.edu
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ISSN 0363-6119 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:16373441 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 801
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