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Author Fouquet, R.; Pearson, P.J. url  openurl
  Title Seven centuries of energy services: The price and use of light in the United Kingdom (1300-2000) Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Energy Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue (up) Pages 139-177  
  Keywords Energy; Economics  
  Abstract Before the mid-eighteenth century, most people lived in near-complete

darkness except in the presence of sunlight and moonlight. Since then, the provision

of artificial light has been revolutionised by a series of innovations in appliances,

fuels, infrastructures and institutions that have enabled the growing demands of

economic development for artificial light to be met at dramatically lower costs:

by the year 2000, while United Kingdom GDP per capita was 15 times its 1800

value, lighting services cost less than one three thousandth of their 1800 value,

per capita use was 6,500 times greater and total lighting consumption was 25,000

times higher than in 1800. The economic history of light shows how focussing on

developments in energy service provision rather than simply on energy use and

prices can reveal the ‘true’ declines in costs, enhanced levels of consumption

and welfare gains that have been achieved. While emphasising the value of past

experience, the paper also warns against the dangers of over-reliance on past

trends for the long-run forecasting of energy consumption given the potential for the

introduction of new technologies and fuels, and for rebound and saturation effects.
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 441  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Marchant, P.R. url  openurl
  Title Investigating whether a crime reduction measure works Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 91 Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Crime is a serious business. It causes great distress and fear. It costs a lot

to deal with its consequences. In these regards crime shares much with

the problem of ill-health and disease. The application of sound science and

statistics has allowed great strides to be made in dealing with problems of

ill health. Medical statistics is one of the recognised, established

disciplines involved in researching healthcare.

The parallels between research in crime reduction and in healthcare do

appear to differ in terms of quality. Although there is still room for

considerable improvement in researching health-care, an investigation

into the underpinning of statistical methods used indicates that the

problems are substantially worse in the study of crime. The consideration

given to statistics in crime studies seems rather flimsy, yet important

claims are made which are statistical at source and may affect policy, and

so can have considerable costs attached. Therefore, for example, it is

important to know whether the underlying crime level has really changed,

rather than just being the result of perhaps sampling variation or some

artefact giving rise to statistical bias or systematic error. This is necessary

when trying to determine whether a Crime Reduction Intervention (CRI)

has actually worked.

I started examining the scientific basis of the claim for the effectiveness for

one particular CRI, basically because I was concerned about negative side

effects and I thought the claim implausible. I remain concerned and

unconvinced. The statistical issues and concerns I raise apply also to

investigating other CRIs and to existing published analyses.

This piece extends work presented in Marchant (2006); earlier work on the

statistical issues involved can be found in Marchant (2005a, b; 2004).
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 452  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rich, C.; Longcore, T.; editors url  openurl
  Title Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Island Press. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Ecology  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 479  
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Author Laaksonen, J.; Laaksonen, T.; Itämies, J.; Rytkönen, S.; Välimäki, P. url  openurl
  Title A new efficient bait-trap model for Lepidoptera surveys – the “ Oulu ” model. Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Entomologica Fennica Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 17 Issue (up) Pages 153–160  
  Keywords Animals  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 607  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Figueiro, M.G.; Rea, M.S.; Bullough, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does architectural lighting contribute to breast cancer? Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Carcinogenesis Abbreviated Journal J Carcinog  
  Volume 5 Issue (up) Pages 20  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: There is a growing interest in the role that light plays on nocturnal melatonin production and, perhaps thereby, the incidence of breast cancer in modern societies. The direct causal relationships in this logical chain have not, however, been fully established and the weakest link is an inability to quantitatively specify architectural lighting as a stimulus for the circadian system. The purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to this weakness. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION: We reviewed the literature on the relationship between melatonin, light at night, and cancer risk in humans and tumor growth in animals. More specifically, we focused on the impact of light on nocturnal melatonin suppression in humans and on the applicability of these data to women in real-life situations. Photometric measurement data from the lighted environment of women at work and at home is also reported. DATA SYNTHESIS: The literature review and measurement data demonstrate that more quantitative knowledge is needed about circadian light exposures actually experienced by women and girls in modern societies. CONCLUSION: Without such quantitative knowledge, limited insights can be gained about the causal relationship between melatonin and the etiology of breast cancer from epidemiological studies and from parametric studies using animal models.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street Troy, NY 12180 USA. figuem@rpi.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-3163 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16901343; PMCID:PMC1557490 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 746  
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