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Author Johnsen, S.; Kelber, A.; Warrant, E.; Sweeney, A.M.; Widder, E.A.; Lee, R.L.J.; Hernandez-Andres, J.
Title Crepuscular and nocturnal illumination and its effects on color perception by the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol
Volume 209 Issue Pt 5 Pages 789-800
Keywords (up) Animals; Color Perception/*physiology; Ecosystem; *Light; Moths/*physiology
Abstract Recent studies have shown that certain nocturnal insect and vertebrate species have true color vision under nocturnal illumination. Thus, their vision is potentially affected by changes in the spectral quality of twilight and nocturnal illumination, due to the presence or absence of the moon, artificial light pollution and other factors. We investigated this in the following manner. First we measured the spectral irradiance (from 300 to 700 nm) during the day, sunset, twilight, full moon, new moon, and in the presence of high levels of light pollution. The spectra were then converted to both human-based chromaticities and to relative quantum catches for the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor, which has color vision. The reflectance spectra of various flowers and leaves and the red hindwings of D. elpenor were also converted to chromaticities and relative quantum catches. Finally, the achromatic and chromatic contrasts (with and without von Kries color constancy) of the flowers and hindwings against a leaf background were determined under the various lighting environments. The twilight and nocturnal illuminants were substantially different from each other, resulting in significantly different contrasts. The addition of von Kries color constancy significantly reduced the effect of changing illuminants on chromatic contrast, suggesting that, even in this light-limited environment, the ability of color vision to provide reliable signals under changing illuminants may offset the concurrent threefold decrease in sensitivity and spatial resolution. Given this, color vision may be more common in crepuscular and nocturnal species than previously considered.
Address Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. sjohnsen@duke.edu
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ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:16481568 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 604
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Author Petrželková, K. J.; Downs, N. C.; Zukal, J.; Racey, P. A.
Title A comparison between emergence and return activity in pipistrelle bats Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Acta Chiropterologica Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 381-390
Keywords (up) animals; fying mammals: animal behaviour
Abstract Bats may be vulnerable to predation during evening emergence and morning return to their roosts. Early emergence increases the risk of exposure to raptorial birds, but emerging late confers a risk of missing the dusk peak of aerial insects. Here, both emergence and return activity was studied in detail at the same roosts for the first time. We investigated six maternity colonies of pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus) in NE Scotland and recorded light levels and time of emergence and return of the bats with respect to sunset and sunrise on the same nights. Parameters of return activity generally occurred at lower light intensities than those of emergence. Therefore, the interval between dawn return and sunrise was generally longer than that between sunset and dusk emergence. Emergence and return were equal in duration. Bats clustered more on emergence in comparison with return during pregnancy and lactation, whereas during postlactation this trend was reversed.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1598
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Author Rich, C.; Longcore, T.; editors
Title Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Island Press. Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Ecology
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 479
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Author Powe, N.A; Willis, K.G.; Garrod, G.D.
Title Difficulties in Valuing Street Light Improvement: Trust, Surprise and Bound Effects Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Applied Economics Abbreviated Journal
Volume 38 Issue 4 Pages 371–381
Keywords (up) Economics
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1055
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Author Fouquet, R.; Pearson, P.J.
Title Seven centuries of energy services: The price and use of light in the United Kingdom (1300-2000) Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Energy Journal Abbreviated Journal
Volume 27 Issue Pages 139-177
Keywords (up) Energy; Economics
Abstract Before the mid-eighteenth century, most people lived in near-complete

darkness except in the presence of sunlight and moonlight. Since then, the provision

of artificial light has been revolutionised by a series of innovations in appliances,

fuels, infrastructures and institutions that have enabled the growing demands of

economic development for artificial light to be met at dramatically lower costs:

by the year 2000, while United Kingdom GDP per capita was 15 times its 1800

value, lighting services cost less than one three thousandth of their 1800 value,

per capita use was 6,500 times greater and total lighting consumption was 25,000

times higher than in 1800. The economic history of light shows how focussing on

developments in energy service provision rather than simply on energy use and

prices can reveal the ‘true’ declines in costs, enhanced levels of consumption

and welfare gains that have been achieved. While emphasising the value of past

experience, the paper also warns against the dangers of over-reliance on past

trends for the long-run forecasting of energy consumption given the potential for the

introduction of new technologies and fuels, and for rebound and saturation effects.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 441
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