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Author Johnsen, S.; Kelber, A.; Warrant, E.; Sweeney, A.M.; Widder, E.A.; Lee, R.L.J.; Hernandez-Andres, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Crepuscular and nocturnal illumination and its effects on color perception by the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol  
  Volume 209 Issue Pt 5 Pages 789-800  
  Keywords Animals; Color Perception/*physiology; Ecosystem; *Light; Moths/*physiology  
  Abstract Recent studies have shown that certain nocturnal insect and vertebrate species have true color vision under nocturnal illumination. Thus, their vision is potentially affected by changes in the spectral quality of twilight and nocturnal illumination, due to the presence or absence of the moon, artificial light pollution and other factors. We investigated this in the following manner. First we measured the spectral irradiance (from 300 to 700 nm) during the day, sunset, twilight, full moon, new moon, and in the presence of high levels of light pollution. The spectra were then converted to both human-based chromaticities and to relative quantum catches for the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor, which has color vision. The reflectance spectra of various flowers and leaves and the red hindwings of D. elpenor were also converted to chromaticities and relative quantum catches. Finally, the achromatic and chromatic contrasts (with and without von Kries color constancy) of the flowers and hindwings against a leaf background were determined under the various lighting environments. The twilight and nocturnal illuminants were substantially different from each other, resulting in significantly different contrasts. The addition of von Kries color constancy significantly reduced the effect of changing illuminants on chromatic contrast, suggesting that, even in this light-limited environment, the ability of color vision to provide reliable signals under changing illuminants may offset the concurrent threefold decrease in sensitivity and spatial resolution. Given this, color vision may be more common in crepuscular and nocturnal species than previously considered.  
  Address Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. sjohnsen@duke.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16481568 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial (down) 604  
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Author Rich, C.; Longcore, T.; editors url  openurl
  Title Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Island Press. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Ecology  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial (down) 479  
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Author Marchant, P.R. url  openurl
  Title Investigating whether a crime reduction measure works Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 91 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Crime is a serious business. It causes great distress and fear. It costs a lot

to deal with its consequences. In these regards crime shares much with

the problem of ill-health and disease. The application of sound science and

statistics has allowed great strides to be made in dealing with problems of

ill health. Medical statistics is one of the recognised, established

disciplines involved in researching healthcare.

The parallels between research in crime reduction and in healthcare do

appear to differ in terms of quality. Although there is still room for

considerable improvement in researching health-care, an investigation

into the underpinning of statistical methods used indicates that the

problems are substantially worse in the study of crime. The consideration

given to statistics in crime studies seems rather flimsy, yet important

claims are made which are statistical at source and may affect policy, and

so can have considerable costs attached. Therefore, for example, it is

important to know whether the underlying crime level has really changed,

rather than just being the result of perhaps sampling variation or some

artefact giving rise to statistical bias or systematic error. This is necessary

when trying to determine whether a Crime Reduction Intervention (CRI)

has actually worked.

I started examining the scientific basis of the claim for the effectiveness for

one particular CRI, basically because I was concerned about negative side

effects and I thought the claim implausible. I remain concerned and

unconvinced. The statistical issues and concerns I raise apply also to

investigating other CRIs and to existing published analyses.

This piece extends work presented in Marchant (2006); earlier work on the

statistical issues involved can be found in Marchant (2005a, b; 2004).
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial (down) 452  
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Author Fouquet, R.; Pearson, P.J. url  openurl
  Title Seven centuries of energy services: The price and use of light in the United Kingdom (1300-2000) Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Energy Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue Pages 139-177  
  Keywords Energy; Economics  
  Abstract Before the mid-eighteenth century, most people lived in near-complete

darkness except in the presence of sunlight and moonlight. Since then, the provision

of artificial light has been revolutionised by a series of innovations in appliances,

fuels, infrastructures and institutions that have enabled the growing demands of

economic development for artificial light to be met at dramatically lower costs:

by the year 2000, while United Kingdom GDP per capita was 15 times its 1800

value, lighting services cost less than one three thousandth of their 1800 value,

per capita use was 6,500 times greater and total lighting consumption was 25,000

times higher than in 1800. The economic history of light shows how focussing on

developments in energy service provision rather than simply on energy use and

prices can reveal the ‘true’ declines in costs, enhanced levels of consumption

and welfare gains that have been achieved. While emphasising the value of past

experience, the paper also warns against the dangers of over-reliance on past

trends for the long-run forecasting of energy consumption given the potential for the

introduction of new technologies and fuels, and for rebound and saturation effects.
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial (down) 441  
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Author Xavier Kerola, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Modelling artificial night-sky brightness with a polarized multiple scattering radiative transfer computer code: Modelling artificial night-sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 365 Issue 4 Pages 1295-1299  
  Keywords Skyglow; modeling; radiative transfer; Gauss-Seidel; light pollution; Garstang model  
  Abstract As part of an ongoing investigation of radiative effects produced by hazy atmospheres, computational procedures have been developed for use in determining the brightening of the night sky as a result of urban illumination. The downwardly and upwardly directed radiances of multiply scattered light from an offending metropolitan source are computed by a straightforward Gauss-Seidel (G-S) iterative technique applied directly to the integrated form of Chandrasekhar's vectorized radiative transfer equation. Initial benchmark night-sky brightness tests of the present G-S model using fully consistent optical emission and extinction input parameters yield very encouraging results when compared with the double scattering treatment of Garstang, the only full-fledged previously available model.  
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  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 278  
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