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Author Petrželková, K. J.; Downs, N. C.; Zukal, J.; Racey, P. A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A comparison between emergence and return activity in pipistrelle bats Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Acta Chiropterologica Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages 381-390  
  Keywords animals; fying mammals: animal behaviour  
  Abstract Bats may be vulnerable to predation during evening emergence and morning return to their roosts. Early emergence increases the risk of exposure to raptorial birds, but emerging late confers a risk of missing the dusk peak of aerial insects. Here, both emergence and return activity was studied in detail at the same roosts for the first time. We investigated six maternity colonies of pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus) in NE Scotland and recorded light levels and time of emergence and return of the bats with respect to sunset and sunrise on the same nights. Parameters of return activity generally occurred at lower light intensities than those of emergence. Therefore, the interval between dawn return and sunrise was generally longer than that between sunset and dusk emergence. Emergence and return were equal in duration. Bats clustered more on emergence in comparison with return during pregnancy and lactation, whereas during postlactation this trend was reversed.  
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  Publisher BioOne Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1598  
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Author Takemura, A.; Ueda, S.; Hiyakawa, N.; Nikaido, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A direct influence of moonlight intensity on changes in melatonin production by cultured pineal glands of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res  
  Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 236-241  
  Keywords Animals; Circadian Rhythm; *Light; Melatonin/biosynthesis/*secretion; *Moon; Organ Culture Techniques; Perciformes/*physiology; Pineal Gland/physiology/*radiation effects  
  Abstract Rabbitfish are a restricted lunar-synchronized spawner that spawns around a species-specific lunar phase. It is not known how the fish perceive changes in cues from the moon. One possible explanation is that rabbitfish utilize changes in moonlight intensity to establish synchrony. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the pineal gland of the golden rabbitfish can directly perceive changes in moonlight intensity. Isolated pineal glands were statically cultured under natural or artificial light conditions and melatonin secreted into the culture medium was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Under an artificial light/dark cycle, melatonin secretion significantly increased during the dark phase. Under continuous light conditions, melatonin secretion was suppressed, while culture under continuous dark conditions seemed to duplicate melatonin secretion corresponding to the light/dark cycle in which the fish were acclimated. When cultured pineal glands were kept under natural light conditions on the dates of the full and the new moon, small amounts of melatonin were secreted at night. Moreover, exposure of cultured pineal glands to artificial and natural light conditions resulted in a significant decrease of melatonin secretion within 2 hr. These results suggest that the isolated pineal gland of golden rabbitfish responds to environmental light cycles and that 'brightness' of the night moon has an influence on melatonin secretion from the isolated pineal gland.  
  Address Sesoko Station, Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus, Motobu, Okinawa, Japan. tilapia@lab.u-ryukyu.ac.jp  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16499560 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 70  
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Author Shirkey, R. C. url  openurl
  Title (up) A Model for Nighttime Urban Illumination Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow  
  Abstract The Army increasingly relies on night operations to accomplish its objectives. These night operations frequently require using Night Vision Goggles and other light-sensitive devices which are strongly affected by ambient lighting, a large component of which is urban. An urban illumination model is proposed for use in tactical decision aids and wargames which would allow for more accurate prediction of target acquisition ranges and increased realism in simulations. This model will build on previous research that predicts broadband brightness as a function of population and distance from the city center. Since city population and aerosols affect light distributions, the model is being extended and generalized for multiple city types and natural and man-made aerosols. An overview of the model along with future improvements will be presented.  
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  Corporate Author ARMY RESEARCH LAB WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE NM COMPUTATIONAL AND INFORMATION SCIENCE DIRECTORATE Thesis  
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  Notes ADA497505 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1977  
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Author Laaksonen, J.; Laaksonen, T.; Itämies, J.; Rytkönen, S.; Välimäki, P. url  openurl
  Title (up) A new efficient bait-trap model for Lepidoptera surveys – the “ Oulu ” model. Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Entomologica Fennica Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 17 Issue Pages 153–160  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 607  
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Author Li, Q.F.; Yang, G.X.; Yu, L.H.; Zhang, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A survey of the luminance distribution in the nocturnal environment in Shanghai urban areas and the control of luminance of floodlit buildings Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume 38 Issue 3 Pages 185-189  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract A survey of the luminance distribution of the nocturnal environment in Shanghai urban areas, which included 11 locations and 16 buildings, was made. The 11 locations could be categorized as commercial, administration, leisure or residential. The average environmental luminance of these was recorded. The authors identified the effects of excessive exterior lighting. The luminance was measured and subjective appraisals made of 16 buildings. The writers have developed an empirical formula for arriving at the brightness level rating for floodlit buildings and recommended corresponding working ranges of luminance.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2715  
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