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Author Bullough, J.D.; Rea, M.S.; Figueiro, M.G.
Title Of mice and women: light as a circadian stimulus in breast cancer research Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Cancer Causes & Control : CCC Abbreviated Journal Cancer Causes Control
Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 375-383
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Breast Neoplasms/*physiopathology; *Circadian Rhythm; *Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; *Light; Light Signal Transduction; Mammary Neoplasms, Animal/*physiopathology; Melatonin/metabolism; Mice; Muridae/metabolism
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Nocturnal rodents are frequently used as models in human breast cancer research, but these species have very different visual and circadian systems and, therefore, very different responses to optical radiation or, informally, light. Because of the impact of light on the circadian system and because recent evidence suggests that cancer risk might be related to circadian disruption, it is becoming increasingly clear that optical radiation must be properly characterized for both nocturnal rodents and diurnal humans to make significant progress in unraveling links between circadian disruption and breast cancer. In this paper, we propose a quantitative framework for comparing radiometric and photometric quantities in human and rodent studies. METHODS: We reviewed published research on light as a circadian stimulus for humans and rodents. Both suppression of nocturnal melatonin and phase shifting were examined as outcome measures for the circadian system. RESULTS: The data were used to develop quantitative comparisons regarding the absolute and spectral sensitivity for the circadian systems of humans and nocturnal rodents. CONCLUSIONS: Two models of circadian phototransduction, for mouse and humans, have been published providing spectral sensitivities for these two species. Despite some methodological variations among the studies reviewed, the circadian systems of nocturnal rodents are approximately 10,000 times more sensitive to optical radiation than that of humans. Circadian effectiveness of different sources for both humans and nocturnal rodents are offered together with a scale relating their absolute sensitivities. Instruments calibrated in terms of conventional photometric units (e.g., lux) will not accurately characterize the circadian stimulus for either humans or rodents.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA. bulloj@rpi.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0957-5243 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16596289 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 726
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Author Cajochen, C.; Jud, C.; Munch, M.; Kobialka, S.; Wirz-Justice, A.; Albrecht, U.
Title Evening exposure to blue light stimulates the expression of the clock gene PER2 in humans Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication The European Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Eur J Neurosci
Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 1082-1086
Keywords Human Health; Adult; Color; Darkness; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Female; Gene Expression/*radiation effects; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/metabolism; Mucous Membrane/metabolism/radiation effects; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/*metabolism; Period Circadian Proteins; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism
Abstract We developed a non-invasive method to measure and quantify human circadian PER2 gene expression in oral mucosa samples and show that this gene oscillates in a circadian (= about a day) fashion. We also have the first evidence that induction of human PER2 expression is stimulated by exposing subjects to 2 h of light in the evening. This increase in PER2 expression was statistically significant in comparison to a non-light control condition only after light at 460 nm (blue) but not after light exposure at 550 nm (green). Our results indicate that the non-image-forming visual system is involved in human circadian gene expression. The demonstration of a functional circadian machinery in human buccal samples and its response to light opens the door for investigation of human circadian rhythms at the gene level and their associated disorders.
Address Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric University Clinics, University of Basel, CH-4025 Basel, Switzerland. christian.cajochen@unibas.ch
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0953-816X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16519674 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 727
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Author Chalkias, C.; Petrakis, M.; Psiloglou, B.; Lianou, M.
Title Modelling of light pollution in suburban areas using remotely sensed imagery and GIS Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume 79 Issue 1 Pages 57-63
Keywords Remote Sensing; Air Pollutants/*analysis; Cities; Environmental Monitoring/*methods; *Geographic Information Systems; Greece; Humans; *Light; Models, Theoretical; *Suburban Health
Abstract This paper describes a methodology for modelling light pollution using geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology. The proposed approach attempts to address the issue of environmental assessment in sensitive suburban areas. The modern way of life in developing countries is conductive to environmental degradation in urban and suburban areas. One specific parameter for this degradation is light pollution due to intense artificial night lighting. This paper aims to assess this parameter for the Athens metropolitan area, using modern analytical and data capturing technologies. For this purpose, night-time satellite images and analogue maps have been used in order to create the spatial database of the GIS for the study area. Using GIS advanced analytical functionality, visibility analysis was implemented. The outputs for this analysis are a series of maps reflecting direct and indirect light pollution around the city of Athens. Direct light pollution corresponds to optical contact with artificial night light sources, while indirect light pollution corresponds to optical contact with the sky glow above the city. Additionally, the assessment of light pollution in different periods allows for dynamic evaluation of the phenomenon. The case study demonstrates high levels of light pollution in Athens suburban areas and its increase over the last decade.
Address Department of Geography, Harokopio University, El. Venizelou Str., Kalithea, 17671 Athens, Greece. xalkias@hua.gr
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16171928 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 729
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Author Curtis, A.M.; FitzGerald, G.A.
Title Central and peripheral clocks in cardiovascular and metabolic function Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Annals of Medicine Abbreviated Journal Ann Med
Volume 38 Issue 8 Pages 552-559
Keywords Human Health
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0785-3890 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 730
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Author Figueiro, M.G.; Rea, M.S.; Bullough, J.D.
Title Does architectural lighting contribute to breast cancer? Type (up) Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Journal of Carcinogenesis Abbreviated Journal J Carcinog
Volume 5 Issue Pages 20
Keywords Human Health
Abstract OBJECTIVES: There is a growing interest in the role that light plays on nocturnal melatonin production and, perhaps thereby, the incidence of breast cancer in modern societies. The direct causal relationships in this logical chain have not, however, been fully established and the weakest link is an inability to quantitatively specify architectural lighting as a stimulus for the circadian system. The purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to this weakness. DATA SOURCES AND EXTRACTION: We reviewed the literature on the relationship between melatonin, light at night, and cancer risk in humans and tumor growth in animals. More specifically, we focused on the impact of light on nocturnal melatonin suppression in humans and on the applicability of these data to women in real-life situations. Photometric measurement data from the lighted environment of women at work and at home is also reported. DATA SYNTHESIS: The literature review and measurement data demonstrate that more quantitative knowledge is needed about circadian light exposures actually experienced by women and girls in modern societies. CONCLUSION: Without such quantitative knowledge, limited insights can be gained about the causal relationship between melatonin and the etiology of breast cancer from epidemiological studies and from parametric studies using animal models.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street Troy, NY 12180 USA. figuem@rpi.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-3163 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16901343; PMCID:PMC1557490 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 746
Permanent link to this record