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Author Fouquet, R.; Pearson, P.J. url  openurl
  Title Seven centuries of energy services: The price and use of light in the United Kingdom (1300-2000) Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Energy Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 27 Issue Pages 139-177  
  Keywords Energy; Economics  
  Abstract Before the mid-eighteenth century, most people lived in near-complete

darkness except in the presence of sunlight and moonlight. Since then, the provision

of artificial light has been revolutionised by a series of innovations in appliances,

fuels, infrastructures and institutions that have enabled the growing demands of

economic development for artificial light to be met at dramatically lower costs:

by the year 2000, while United Kingdom GDP per capita was 15 times its 1800

value, lighting services cost less than one three thousandth of their 1800 value,

per capita use was 6,500 times greater and total lighting consumption was 25,000

times higher than in 1800. The economic history of light shows how focussing on

developments in energy service provision rather than simply on energy use and

prices can reveal the ‘true’ declines in costs, enhanced levels of consumption

and welfare gains that have been achieved. While emphasising the value of past

experience, the paper also warns against the dangers of over-reliance on past

trends for the long-run forecasting of energy consumption given the potential for the

introduction of new technologies and fuels, and for rebound and saturation effects.
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 441  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Gardner, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The use and misuse of coloured light in the urban environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Optics & Laser Technology Abbreviated Journal Optics & Laser Technology  
  Volume 38 Issue 4-6 Pages 366-376  
  Keywords Planning; Society; Psychology  
  Abstract The last few years have seen a huge increase in the transfer of coloured architectural lighting, derived from entertainment and theatre, into the urban and exterior environment. Part of the reason for this is that in the last 15 yr or so, there have been a number of important introductions in coloured lighting technology. These have transformed lighting practice, and while their widespread introduction is seen by some as an enrichment of the urban fabric, others see it as presenting considerable dangers, in terms of aesthetics, perception and in terms of civic identity. Its negative effects on the urban environment have been termed ‘colour blight’.

In this paper, the range of coloured lighting technologies is surveyed and other causes for the increase in coloured lighting are also discussed, together with the problems and benefits involved. Finally, some tentative means are put forward for resolving the problems caused by ‘colour blight’. Current good practice is illustrated by the author's own experience, including his consultancy's participation in a number of urban lighting strategies in the UK and elsewhere. This work involves implementation of a comprehensive lighting plan for the historic city of York, as part of the Urban Lighting Group consortium of three lighting design practices.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0030-3992 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2183  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Amaral, S.; Monteiro, A.M.V.; Camara, G.; Quintanilha, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title DMSP/OLS night-time light imagery for urban population estimates in the Brazilian Amazon Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing  
  Volume 27 Issue 5 Pages 855-870  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 701  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.; Elvidge, C. url  openurl
  Title Recent progresses on a second world atlas of the night-sky brightness--LPTRAN/LPDART realistic models, tomography of light pollution, accurate validation methods and extended satellite data analysis Type Conference Article
  Year 2006 Publication Meeting of the IAU Comm Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 50 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 914  
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Author Marchant, P.R. url  openurl
  Title Investigating whether a crime reduction measure works Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 91 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Crime is a serious business. It causes great distress and fear. It costs a lot

to deal with its consequences. In these regards crime shares much with

the problem of ill-health and disease. The application of sound science and

statistics has allowed great strides to be made in dealing with problems of

ill health. Medical statistics is one of the recognised, established

disciplines involved in researching healthcare.

The parallels between research in crime reduction and in healthcare do

appear to differ in terms of quality. Although there is still room for

considerable improvement in researching health-care, an investigation

into the underpinning of statistical methods used indicates that the

problems are substantially worse in the study of crime. The consideration

given to statistics in crime studies seems rather flimsy, yet important

claims are made which are statistical at source and may affect policy, and

so can have considerable costs attached. Therefore, for example, it is

important to know whether the underlying crime level has really changed,

rather than just being the result of perhaps sampling variation or some

artefact giving rise to statistical bias or systematic error. This is necessary

when trying to determine whether a Crime Reduction Intervention (CRI)

has actually worked.

I started examining the scientific basis of the claim for the effectiveness for

one particular CRI, basically because I was concerned about negative side

effects and I thought the claim implausible. I remain concerned and

unconvinced. The statistical issues and concerns I raise apply also to

investigating other CRIs and to existing published analyses.

This piece extends work presented in Marchant (2006); earlier work on the

statistical issues involved can be found in Marchant (2005a, b; 2004).
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 452  
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