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Author Marchant, P.R.
Title Investigating whether a crime reduction measure works Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal
Volume (up) 91 Issue Pages
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract Crime is a serious business. It causes great distress and fear. It costs a lot

to deal with its consequences. In these regards crime shares much with

the problem of ill-health and disease. The application of sound science and

statistics has allowed great strides to be made in dealing with problems of

ill health. Medical statistics is one of the recognised, established

disciplines involved in researching healthcare.

The parallels between research in crime reduction and in healthcare do

appear to differ in terms of quality. Although there is still room for

considerable improvement in researching health-care, an investigation

into the underpinning of statistical methods used indicates that the

problems are substantially worse in the study of crime. The consideration

given to statistics in crime studies seems rather flimsy, yet important

claims are made which are statistical at source and may affect policy, and

so can have considerable costs attached. Therefore, for example, it is

important to know whether the underlying crime level has really changed,

rather than just being the result of perhaps sampling variation or some

artefact giving rise to statistical bias or systematic error. This is necessary

when trying to determine whether a Crime Reduction Intervention (CRI)

has actually worked.

I started examining the scientific basis of the claim for the effectiveness for

one particular CRI, basically because I was concerned about negative side

effects and I thought the claim implausible. I remain concerned and

unconvinced. The statistical issues and concerns I raise apply also to

investigating other CRIs and to existing published analyses.

This piece extends work presented in Marchant (2006); earlier work on the

statistical issues involved can be found in Marchant (2005a, b; 2004).
Address
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 452
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Author Miller, M.W.
Title Apparent Effects of Light Pollution on Singing Behavior of American Robins Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication The Condor Abbreviated Journal Condor
Volume (up) 108 Issue 1 Pages 130
Keywords American Robin; birds; light pollution; morning chorus; dawn chorus; song; Turdus migratorius; animals; communication
Abstract Astronomers consider light pollution to be a growing problem, however few studies have addressed potential effects of light pollution on wildlife. Sunlight is believed to initiate song in many bird species. If light initiates song, then light pollution may be influencing avian song behavior at a population level. This hypothesis predicts that birds breeding in areas with large amounts of artificial light will begin singing earlier in the day than birds in areas with little artificial light. Birds in highly illuminated areas might begin singing earlier than did birds in those same areas in previous years when artificial light levels were known to be, or were presumably, lower. Also, birds should begin singing earlier within a site on brightly lit nights. In 2002 and 2003 I documented initiation of morning song by breeding American Robins (Turdus migratorius) in areas with differing intensity of artificial nocturnal light. I compared my observations among sites and against historical studies. Robin populations in areas with large amounts of artificial light frequently began their morning chorus during true night. Chorus initiation time, relative to civil twilight, was positively correlated with amount of artificial light present during true night. Robin choruses in areas with little, or presumably little, artificial light have almost never begun during true night, instead appearing to track the onset of civil twilight. Proliferation of artificial nocturnal light may be strongly affecting singing behavior of American Robins at a population level.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0010-5422 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 39
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Author Johnsen, S.; Kelber, A.; Warrant, E.; Sweeney, A.M.; Widder, E.A.; Lee, R.L.J.; Hernandez-Andres, J.
Title Crepuscular and nocturnal illumination and its effects on color perception by the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol
Volume (up) 209 Issue Pt 5 Pages 789-800
Keywords Animals; Color Perception/*physiology; Ecosystem; *Light; Moths/*physiology
Abstract Recent studies have shown that certain nocturnal insect and vertebrate species have true color vision under nocturnal illumination. Thus, their vision is potentially affected by changes in the spectral quality of twilight and nocturnal illumination, due to the presence or absence of the moon, artificial light pollution and other factors. We investigated this in the following manner. First we measured the spectral irradiance (from 300 to 700 nm) during the day, sunset, twilight, full moon, new moon, and in the presence of high levels of light pollution. The spectra were then converted to both human-based chromaticities and to relative quantum catches for the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor, which has color vision. The reflectance spectra of various flowers and leaves and the red hindwings of D. elpenor were also converted to chromaticities and relative quantum catches. Finally, the achromatic and chromatic contrasts (with and without von Kries color constancy) of the flowers and hindwings against a leaf background were determined under the various lighting environments. The twilight and nocturnal illuminants were substantially different from each other, resulting in significantly different contrasts. The addition of von Kries color constancy significantly reduced the effect of changing illuminants on chromatic contrast, suggesting that, even in this light-limited environment, the ability of color vision to provide reliable signals under changing illuminants may offset the concurrent threefold decrease in sensitivity and spatial resolution. Given this, color vision may be more common in crepuscular and nocturnal species than previously considered.
Address Biology Department, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. sjohnsen@duke.edu
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16481568 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 604
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Author Ruger, M.; Gordijn, M.C.M.; Beersma, D.G.M.; de Vries, B.; Daan, S.
Title Time-of-day-dependent effects of bright light exposure on human psychophysiology: comparison of daytime and nighttime exposure Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol
Volume (up) 290 Issue 5 Pages R1413-20
Keywords Human Health; Adult; Body Temperature/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Fatigue/*physiopathology; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Hydrocortisone/*blood; *Light; Sleep Stages/*physiology
Abstract Bright light can influence human psychophysiology instantaneously by inducing endocrine (suppression of melatonin, increasing cortisol levels), other physiological changes (enhancement of core body temperature), and psychological changes (reduction of sleepiness, increase of alertness). Its broad range of action is reflected in the wide field of applications, ranging from optimizing a work environment to treating depressed patients. For optimally applying bright light and understanding its mechanism, it is crucial to know whether its effects depend on the time of day. In this paper, we report the effects of bright light given at two different times of day on psychological and physiological parameters. Twenty-four subjects participated in two experiments (n = 12 each). All subjects were nonsmoking, healthy young males (18-30 yr). In both experiments, subjects were exposed to either bright light (5,000 lux) or dim light <10 lux (control condition) either between 12:00 P.M. and 4:00 P.M. (experiment A) or between midnight and 4:00 A.M. (experiment B). Hourly measurements included salivary cortisol concentrations, electrocardiogram, sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), fatigue, and energy ratings (Visual Analog Scale). Core body temperature was measured continuously throughout the experiments. Bright light had a time-dependent effect on heart rate and core body temperature; i.e., bright light exposure at night, but not in daytime, increased heart rate and enhanced core body temperature. It had no significant effect at all on cortisol. The effect of bright light on the psychological variables was time independent, since nighttime and daytime bright light reduced sleepiness and fatigue significantly and similarly.
Address Department of Chronobiology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. Melanie.Rueger@med.nyu.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0363-6119 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16373441 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 801
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Author Muheim, R.; Phillips, J.B.; Akesson, S.
Title Polarized light cues underlie compass calibration in migratory songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science
Volume (up) 313 Issue 5788 Pages 837-839
Keywords Alaska; *Animal Migration; Animals; Calibration; Cues; *Flight, Animal; Geography; *Light; Magnetics; *Orientation; Seasons; Sparrows/*physiology; Sunlight
Abstract Migratory songbirds use the geomagnetic field, stars, the Sun, and polarized light patterns to determine their migratory direction. To prevent navigational errors, it is necessary to calibrate all of these compass systems to a common reference. We show that migratory Savannah sparrows use polarized light cues from the region of sky near the horizon to recalibrate the magnetic compass at both sunrise and sunset. We suggest that skylight polarization patterns are used to derive an absolute (i.e., geographic) directional system that provides the primary calibration reference for all of the compasses of migratory songbirds.
Address Department of Animal Ecology, Lund University, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund, Sweden. rmuheim@vt.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16902138 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 243
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