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Author Vignoli, L.; Luiselli, L.
Title Better in the dark: two Mediterranean amphibians synchronize reproduction with moonlit nights Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Web Ecology Abbreviated Journal (down) Web Ecol.
Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 1-11
Keywords animals; amphibians; Hyla intermedia; Rana dalmatina; *Reproduction; reproductive strategies; Moon; moon phase; moonlight
Abstract In Amphibians, both positive and negative correlations between activity and full moon phase have been observed. In this study, we present data for two anuran species (Hyla intermedia and Rana dalmatina) studied in a hilly Mediterranean area of central Italy. We analysed, in a two-year survey, the relationships between the number of egg clutches laid each night and the moon phases by means of circular statistics. Moreover, the studied species exhibited clear oviposition site selection behaviour influenced, at least in H. intermedia, by moon phases. We observed the occurrence of an avoidance effect by amphibians for oviposition and specific egg-laying behaviour during moon phases around the full moon. This apparent lunar phobia was evident in both species when yearly data were pooled. On the other hand, while this pattern continued to be also evident in H. intermedia when single years were considered, in R. dalmatina it stood just in one year of study. Nonetheless, during cloudy nights, when moonlight arriving on the ground was low, the frogs' behaviour was similar to that observed in new moon phases. We interpreted the observed pattern as an anti-predatory strategy. Overall, comparisons between our own study and previous research suggest that there was insufficient evidence to establish any unequivocal patterns and that further research in this regard is needed.
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ISSN 1399-1183 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 80
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Author Dukic, T.; Ahlstrom, C.; Patten, C.; Kettwich, C.; Kircher, K.
Title Effects of electronic billboards on driver distraction Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal (down) Traffic Inj Prev
Volume 14 Issue 5 Pages 469-476
Keywords Adult; Advertising as Topic/*methods; *Attention; Automobile Driving/*psychology; Eye Movements; Humans; Middle Aged; Psychomotor Performance; Sweden; Time Factors
Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is an increase in electronic advertising billboards along major roads, which may cause driver distraction due to the highly conspicuous design of the electronic billboards. Yet limited research on the impact of electronic billboards on driving performance and driver behavior is available. The Swedish Transport Administration recently approved the installation of 12 electronic billboards for a trial period along a 3-lane motorway with heavy traffic running through central Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these electronic billboards on visual behavior and driving performance. METHOD: A total of 41 drivers were recruited to drive an instrumented vehicle passing 4 of the electronic billboards during day and night conditions. A driver was considered visually distracted when looking at a billboard continuously for more than 2 s or if the driver looked away from the road for a high percentage of time. Dependent variables were eye-tracking measures and driving performance measures. RESULTS: The visual behavior data showed that drivers had a significantly longer dwell time, a greater number of fixations, and longer maximum fixation duration when driving past an electronic billboard compared to other signs on the same road stretches. No differences were found for the factors day/night, and no effect was found for the driving behavior data. CONCLUSION: Electronic billboards have an effect on gaze behavior by attracting more and longer glances than regular traffic signs. Whether the electronic billboards attract too much attention and constitute a traffic safety hazard cannot be answered conclusively based on the present data.
Address Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden. tania.dukic@vti.se
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ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23682577 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 247
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Author Collison, F.M.; Poe, K.
Title “Astronomical Tourism”: The Astronomy and Dark Sky Program at Bryce Canyon National Park Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Tourism Management Perspectives Abbreviated Journal (down) Tourism Management Perspectives
Volume 7 Issue Pages 1-15
Keywords Astronomy-related tourism; National parks; Night sky darkness; astrotourism; dark skies
Abstract Astronomical tourism represents a less-studied segment of sustainable tourism, where a dark night sky is the underlying resource. This article evaluates an astronomical tourism program, in this case at a national park with dark skies for observing. Bryce Canyon National Park (BCNP) in the southwestern United States has a well-developed astronomy program to serve visitors. The program consists of solar viewing during the day, multimedia evening programs, and night-time star gazing with telescopes. Depending on the specific measure used, it appears that up to 10% of park visitors may be involved with the formal Astronomy and Dark Sky Program and/or more informal astronomy activities. BCNP appears well positioned to take advantage of the dark sky attributes of the park and to educate visitors about the importance of maintaining and/or increasing the darkness of night skies. Potential future developments in the program may serve to further increase the number of visitors to BCNP.
Address School of Travel Industry Management, 1901 Ruby Lane, Liberty, MO 64068; collison(at)hawaii.edu
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ISSN 2211-9736 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 128
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Author Lorenc, T.; Petticrew, M.; Whitehead, M.; Neary, D.; Clayton, S.; Wright, K.; Thomson, H.; Cummins, S.; Sowden, A.; Renton, A.
Title Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal (down) Syst Rev
Volume 2 Issue Pages 30
Keywords *Crime; *Environment Design; *Fear; Humans; Milieu Therapy/*standards; *Public Health; *Safety
Abstract BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. METHODS: This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.
Address Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 5-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK. theo.lorenc@lshtm.ac.uk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2046-4053 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23663285; PMCID:PMC3660218 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 251
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Author Ghosh, T.; Anderson, S.; Elvidge, C.; Sutton, P.
Title Using Nighttime Satellite Imagery as a Proxy Measure of Human Well-Being Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal (down) Sustainability
Volume 5 Issue 12 Pages 4988-5019
Keywords Remote Sensing
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 941
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