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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Wagner, J.M.; Kuechly, H.U.; Walker, C.E.; Elvidge, C.D.; Falchi, F.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F.
Title Citizen science provides valuable data for monitoring global night sky luminance Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep
Volume 3 Issue Pages 1835
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Abstract (down) The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the “First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness” are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate.
Address Institute for Space Sciences, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany. christopher.kyba@wew.fu-berlin.de
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23677222; PMCID:PMC3655480 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 13
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Hölker, F.
Title Do artificially illuminated skies affect biodiversity in nocturnal landscapes? Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal Landscape Ecol
Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 1637-1640
Keywords skyglow; light pollution; biodiversity
Abstract (down) The skyglow from cities at night is one of the most dramatic modifications that humans have made to Earth’s biosphere, and it is increasingly extending into nocturnal landscapes (nightscapes) far beyond urban areas. This scattered light is dim and homogenous compared to a lit street, but can be bright compared to natural celestial light sources, such as stars. Because of the large area of Earth affected by artificial skyglow, it is essential to verify whether skyglow is a selective pressure in nocturnal landscapes. We propose two scientific approaches that could examine whether skyglow affects biodiversity.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0921-2973 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 35
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Author Prugh, L.R.; Golden, C.D.
Title Does moonlight increase predation risk? Meta-analysis reveals divergent responses of nocturnal mammals to lunar cycles Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 83 Issue 2 Pages 504-514
Keywords foraging efficiency; giving-up density; illumination; indirect effects; lunar cycles; moonlight; nocturnality; phylogenetic meta-analysis; predation risk; risk-sensitive foraging
Abstract (down) The risk of predation strongly affects mammalian population dynamics and community interactions. Bright moonlight is widely believed to increase predation risk for nocturnal mammals by increasing the ability of predators to detect prey, but the potential for moonlight to increase detection of predators and the foraging efficiency of prey has largely been ignored. Studies have reported highly variable responses to moonlight among species, calling into question the assumption that moonlight increases risk. Here, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis examining the effects of moonlight on the activity of 59 nocturnal mammal species to test the assumption that moonlight increases predation risk. We examined patterns of lunarphilia and lunarphobia across species in relation to factors such as trophic level, habitat cover preference and visual acuity. Across all species included in the meta-analysis, moonlight suppressed activity. The magnitude of suppression was similar to the presence of a predator in experimental studies of foraging rodents (13.6% and 18.7% suppression, respectively). Contrary to the expectation that moonlight increases predation risk for all prey species, however, moonlight effects were not clearly related to trophic level and were better explained by phylogenetic relatedness, visual acuity and habitat cover. Moonlight increased the activity of prey species that use vision as their primary sensory system and suppressed the activity of species that primarily use other senses (e.g. olfaction, echolocation), and suppression was strongest in open habitat types. Strong taxonomic patterns underlay these relationships: moonlight tended to increase primate activity, whereas it tended to suppress the activity of rodents, lagomorphs, bats and carnivores. These results indicate that visual acuity and habitat cover jointly moderate the effect of moonlight on predation risk, whereas trophic position has little effect. While the net effect of moonlight appears to increase predation risk for most nocturnal mammals, our results highlight the importance of sensory systems and phylogenetic history in determining the level of risk.
Address Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 311 Irving 1, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24102189 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 83
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Author Shimose, T.; Yokawa, K.; Tachihara, K.
Title Higher Catch Rates Around the Full Moon for Blue Marlin, Makaira Nigricans, in a Diurnal Trolling Fishery Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Bulletin of Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Bms
Volume 89 Issue 3 Pages 759-765
Keywords fish; blue marlin; Makaira nigricans; Moon; moonlight; Feeding Behavior
Abstract (down) The relationship between lunar phase and catch rates of blue marlin, Makaira nigricans Lacépède, 1802, in a diurnal trolling fishery at Yonaguni Island, southwestern Japan, was investigated. The mean catch per unit effort of blue marlin to lunar day was expressed by a periodic regression and significantly increased around the full moon. The stomach content index also significantly increased around the full moon in small blue marlin (<200 cm lower jaw–fork length), indicating that diurnal feeding activities of blue marlin increased around the full moon, especially for smaller individuals. The diurnal feeding activity is thought to be influenced by the nighttime activities of blue marlin and/or prey movements.
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ISSN 0007-4977 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 63
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Author Wilhelm, S.I.; Schau, J.J.; Schau, E.; Dooley, S.M.; Wiseman, D.L.; Hogan, H.A.
Title Atlantic Puffins are Attracted to Coastal Communities in Eastern Newfoundland Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Northeastern Naturalist Abbreviated Journal
Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 624-630
Keywords Animals
Abstract (down) The Puffin Patrol is a volunteer-based group that rescues fledgling Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin) stranded in coastal communities overlooking the Witless Bay Seabird Ecological Reserve in Newfoundland, Canada, which hosts the two largest Atlantic Puffin colonies in North America. We examine local environmental factors (visibility, moon phase) that may influence light attraction in Atlantic Puffins and explore the use of weight data and other information collected through this volunteer-based initiative to help monitor the health of this important population. In 2011, only 13 live Atlantic Puffins were captured despite nightly search efforts throughout the fledging period; this low capture rate was attributed to poor breeding success at the colony. In contrast, in 2012, 414 live fledgling puffins were captured and successfully released between 6 August and 5 September; 388 of these were banded and weighed prior to release. Capture rates on nights with poor visibility due to fog (26 fledglings per night) were similar to fogless nights (24 fledglings per night). Most live Atlantic Puffins were captured within a two-week period around the new moon. Fledglings weighed 248 ± 25 (SD) g, range = 160–315 g; weights significantly declined over the fledging period. In addition to the direct conservation benefits of saving grounded Atlantic Puffins, information collected through this volunteer-based initiative 1) provides insight on factors affecting Atlantic Puffins' attraction to coastal communities, 2) shows the importance of mitigating artificial light during the birds' fledging period within these developing communities, and 3) helps collect important demographic information without causing additional disturbance to the colonies.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 384
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