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Author Bedrosian, T.A.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like phenotype: possible role for TNF Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Molecular Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal
Volume 18 Issue Pages 930-936
Keywords Animals
Abstract (down) The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades and women are twice as likely as men to develop the disorder. Recent environmental changes almost certainly have a role in this phenomenon, but a complete set of contributors remains unspecified. Exposure to artificial light at night (LAN) has surged in prevalence during the past 50 years, coinciding with rising rates of depression. Chronic exposure to LAN is linked to increased risk of breast cancer, obesity and mood disorders, although the relationship to mood is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to 5 lux LAN on depression-like behaviors in female hamsters. Using this model, we also characterized hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and hippocampal dendritic morphology, and investigated the reversibility of these changes 1, 2 or 4 weeks following elimination of LAN. Furthermore, we explored the mechanism of action, focusing on hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines given their dual role in synaptic plasticity and the pathogenesis of depression. Using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, we identified a reversible increase in hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but not interleukin-1β, mRNA expression in hamsters exposed to LAN. Direct intracerebroventricular infusion of a dominant-negative inhibitor of soluble TNF, XPro1595, prevented the development of depression-like behavior under LAN, but had no effect on dendritic spine density in the hippocampus. These results indicate a partial role for TNF in the reversible depression-like phenotype observed under chronic dim LAN. Recent environmental changes, such as LAN exposure, may warrant more attention as possible contributors to rising rates of mood disorders.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 386
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Author Ruger, M.; St Hilaire, M.A.; Brainard, G.C.; Khalsa, S.-B.S.; Kronauer, R.E.; Czeisler, C.A.; Lockley, S.W.
Title Human phase response curve to a single 6.5 h pulse of short-wavelength light Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Physiol
Volume 591 Issue Pt 1 Pages 353-363
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Body Temperature; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/physiology; Young Adult; blue light; melatonin; photic response; whort-wavelength
Abstract (down) The photic resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker depends on the timing of exposure, and the direction and magnitude of the resulting shift is described by a phase response curve (PRC). Previous PRCs in humans have utilized high-intensity polychromatic white light. Given that the circadian photoreception system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength visible light, the aim of the current study was to construct a PRC to blue (480 nm) light and compare it to a 10,000 lux white light PRC constructed previously using a similar protocol. Eighteen young healthy participants (18-30 years) were studied for 9-10 days in a time-free environment. The protocol included three baseline days followed by a constant routine (CR) to assess initial circadian phase. Following this CR, participants were exposed to a 6.5 h 480 nm light exposure (11.8 muW cm(-2), 11.2 lux) following mydriasis via a modified Ganzfeld dome. A second CR was conducted following the light exposure to re-assess circadian phase. Phase shifts were calculated from the difference in dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) between CRs. Exposure to 6.5 h of 480 nm light resets the circadian pacemaker according to a conventional type 1 PRC with fitted maximum delays and advances of -2.6 h and 1.3 h, respectively. The 480 nm PRC induced approximately 75% of the response of the 10,000 lux white light PRC. These results may contribute to a re-evaluation of dosing guidelines for clinical light therapy and the use of light as a fatigue countermeasure.
Address Circadian Physiology Program, Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 221 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. mrueger@rics.bwh.harvard.edu
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0022-3751 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23090946; PMCID:PMC3630790 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 239
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Author Nowinszky, L.
Title Light-trap Catch of Harmful Microlepidoptera Species in Connection with Polarized Moonlight and Collecting Distance Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 4 Issue 4 Pages 108-117
Keywords Animals
Abstract (down) The paper deals with light-trap catch of 25 Microlepidoptera species depending on the polarized moonlight and

collecting distance. The catching data were chosen from the 27 stations of the Hungarian National Light-trap Network and

from the years between 1959 and 1961. Relative catch values were calculated from the catching data per stations and

swarming. They are ranged and averaged in the phase angle divisions. The catching peak of ten species is in First Quarter,

another ten species have the peak in the First Quarter and Last one, and only in two cases the peak is in Last Quarter. Then

there is the maximum ratio of polarized moonlight. Catching peak of only three species is in connection with the collecting

distance when is the greatest of collection distance.

Keywords: Microlepidoptera, light-trap moon phases, polarized moonlight, catching distance.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 381
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Author Kostic, A.; Kremic, M.; Djokic, L.; Kostic, M.
Title Light-emitting diodes in street and roadway lighting – a case study involving mesopic effects Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 217-229
Keywords LED; LED lighting; mesopic; street lighting; outdoor lighting; roadway lighting
Abstract (down) The paper considers the justification for the application of light-emitting diode (LED) technology to urban lighting. The results suggest that LEDs are convenient for architectural lighting and deserve to be considered for use in ambient lighting. The recently developed Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) mesopic system enabled the inclusion of mesopic effects into a comprehensive techno-economic analysis, which dealt with efficiency, maintenance and financial aspects of the use of LEDs in street and roadway lighting. It is concluded that the average energy savings when using LED instead of high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires amount to 19–26% for single-sided, staggered and opposite layouts, although they are frequently negligible if mesopic effects are not included. The total costs of the LED lighting solutions, even including mesopic effects, are 1.36 to 6.44 times higher than those of the comparable HPS lighting solutions. Therefore, LEDs are questionable for street and roadway lighting.
Address Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 339
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Author Li, X.; Chen, F.; Chen, X.
Title Satellite-Observed Nighttime Light Variation as Evidence for Global Armed Conflicts Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observations Remote Sensing
Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 2302-2315
Keywords Remote Sensing; Society
Abstract (down) The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of nighttime light images, acquired with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS), in evaluating global armed conflicts. To achieve this purpose, we assessed the relationship between armed conflicts and the satellite-observed nighttime light variation over 159 countries through annual composites of the nighttime light images. Firstly, a light ratio index was developed to reduce the data inconsistency of annual nighttime light images during 1992-2010. Then 12 countries were selected as examples for a primary investigation, and we found the outbreak of a war can reduce the light and the ceasefire can increase the light from the remote sensing images, which indicates armed conflict events always have significant impact on the nighttime light. Based on this assertion, a nighttime light variation index (NLVI) was developed to quantify the variation of the time series nighttime light. Then using conditional probability analysis, the probability of a country suffering from armed conflicts increases with increase of NLVI. Particularly, when the NLVI value is in a very high level as defined, 80% of the countries have experienced armed conflicts. Furthermore, using correlation analysis, the number of global armed conflicts is highly correlated with the global NLVI in temporal dimension, with a correlation coefficient larger than 0.77. In summary, the potential of nighttime light images in armed conflict evaluation is extended from a regional scale to a global scale by this study.
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ISSN 1939-1404 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1876
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