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Author Upham, N.S.; Hafner, J.C.
Title Do nocturnal rodents in the Great Basin Desert avoid moonlight? Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal Journal of Mammalogy
Volume 94 Issue 1 Pages 59-72
Keywords Animals; Moonlight
Abstract (down) Rodents make foraging decisions by balancing demands to acquire energy and mates with the need to avoid predators. To identify variations in the risk of predation, nocturnal rodents may use moonlight as a cue of risk. Moonlight avoidance behaviors have been observed in many nocturnal rodent species and are widely generalized to small mammals. However, most prior studies have been limited to 1 species or 1 study site, or occurred in modified habitats. We evaluated desert rodent activity patterns in natural habitats from 1999 to 2006 at 62 study sites across the Great Basin Desert of western North America. Rodent activity was examined by livetrapping in open habitats, using the presence of the sand-obligate kangaroo mouse (Microdipodops) as a habitat indicator. Activity patterns were assessed on 69 nights with clear skies and compared to corresponding moonlight values (moon phase and brightness) to evaluate the frequency of moonlight avoidance. Analyses of total activity of all species in the rodent assemblage relative to moonlight showed a distinct nonrandom (triangular-shaped) pattern but no significant correlations. However, individual genera of desert rodents responded differently to moonlight. Only kangaroo rats (Dipodomys) displayed significant moonlight avoidance patterns; they were maximally active at significantly different moonlight levels and avoided bright moonlight to a greater extent than co-occurring rodents. Moonlight seemed to limit the activity of kangaroo rats most strongly on bright nights during waxing moon phases and summer seasons, but not significantly during the spring or fall seasons, or during waning moons. Rather than avoiding moonlight, the activity of deer mice (Peromyscus), pocket mice (Perognathus), and kangaroo mice may be governed by changes in competition with kangaroo rats. Differences in the body size, locomotion, and space use of kangaroo rats relative to other rodents may explain why different moonlight responses were detected, especially if these traits alter how rodents perceive risk from bright moonlight. These findings indicate that moonlight avoidance may be a specialized trait of kangaroo rats rather than a general behavior of nocturnal desert rodents in the Great Basin.
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ISSN 0022-2372 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1555
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Author Picchi, M.S.; Avolio, L.; Azzani, L.; Brombin, O.; Camerini, G.
Title Fireflies and land use in an urban landscape: the case of Luciola italica L. (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the city of Turin Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Insect Conservation Abbreviated Journal J Insect Conserv
Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 797-805
Keywords Turin; insects; Coleoptera Lampyridae; Luciola italica; Urban environment; Fireflies; Light pollution; Ecological corridors; Green areas; Po River; Italy
Abstract (down) Research was carried out in the city of Turin (Northern Italy) in order to assess the suitability of the urban environment for fireflies.The study started in 2007 with an artistic and scientific project promoted by Parco Arte Vivente (PAV—Park of living art). Citizens joining the project recorded 18 areas where they could observe fireflies, which were identified as Luciola italica L. (Coleoptera Lampyridae). All of the 18 areas recorded by citizens were then visited during the summer of 2009 and the abundance of L. italica was estimated using transects. In 12 sites the presence of the firefly was confirmed. The habitat structures of L. italica were woods interspersed with clearings in the urban districts in the hills, and parks along rivers in the lower and more populated part of the city. In sites where fireflies were observed, the level of illuminance measured was significantly lower than in areas where L. italica was absent. The analysis of the landscape around the study areas showed a negative correlation between the extent of urbanization and fireflies abundance. Survival of L. italica populations in the urban area of Turin is influenced by the extent of green areas and the level of artificial illumination. Parks lying among rivers preserve a level of darkness suitable for fireflies and are connected by woody strips growing along the banks of rivers, that probably function as ecological corridors.
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ISSN 1366-638X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 108
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Author Lyytimäki, J.
Title Nature's nocturnal services: Light pollution as a non-recognised challenge for ecosystem services research and management Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Ecosystem Services Abbreviated Journal Ecosystem Services
Volume 3 Issue Pages e44-e48
Keywords Economics; Ecosystem disservices; Ecosystem services; Environmental management; Light pollution; Scotoecology; Shifting baselines
Abstract (down) Research focusing on ecosystem services has tackled several of the major drivers of environmental degradation, but it suffers from a blind spot related to light pollution. Light pollution caused by artificial night-time lighting is a global environmental change affecting terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. The long-term effects of the disruption of the natural cycles of light and dark on ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services are largely unknown. Even though additional research is clearly needed, identifying, developing and implementing stringent management actions aimed at reducing inadequately installed, unnecessary or excessive lighting are well justified. This essay argues that management is hampered, because ecosystem services from nocturnal nature are increasingly underappreciated by the public due to shifting baseline syndrome, making most people accustomed to constantly illuminated and light-polluted night environments. Increased attention from scientists, managers and the public is needed in order to explicate the best options for preserving the benefits from natural darkness.
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ISSN 2212-0416 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 433
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Author Sweater-Hickcox, K.; Narendran, N.; Bullough, J.; Freyssinier, J.
Title Effect of different coloured luminous surrounds on LED discomfort glare perception Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages 464-475
Keywords perception; subjective; LED; LED lighting; spectral power distribution; SPD
Abstract (down) Recently, there has been increased interest in energy-efficient lighting as energy resources become higher in demand. Anecdotal evidence suggests that certain populations believe light-emitting diodes (LED) produce more glare than traditional technologies. This may be due to a number of factors such as spectral power distribution (SPD), source luminance, or beam intensity distribution. A study was conducted to assess the effect of different SPDs on the perception of discomfort glare from an LED source. For the range of conditions evaluated, the presence of any luminous surround significantly reduced the perception of discomfort glare from the LED array. The blue luminous surround reduced discomfort glare perception significantly less than the white or the yellow luminous surrounds. The implications for solid-state lighting systems are discussed.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 338
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Author van der Burght, B.W.; Hansen, M.; Olsen, J.; Zhou, J.; Wu, Y.; Nissen, M.H.; Sparrow, J.R.
Title Early changes in gene expression induced by blue light irradiation of A2E-laden retinal pigment epithelial cells Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Acta Ophthalmologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Ophthalmol
Volume 91 Issue 7 Pages e537-45
Keywords Apoptosis; Cell Line; Cell Survival; Gene Expression Regulation/*physiology; Humans; Light; Lipofuscin/genetics; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; Principal Component Analysis; Pyridinium Compounds; RNA, Messenger/genetics; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/metabolism/pathology/*radiation effects; Retinoids/*genetics; Transcriptome; A2e; age-related macular degeneration; apoptosis; complement cascade; gene expression; retinal pigment epithelial cells; blue light; retinal pigment epithelial; epigenetics
Abstract (down) PURPOSE: Accumulation of bisretinoids as lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of some blinding diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To identify genes whose expression may change under conditions of bisretinoid accumulation, we investigated the differential gene expression in RPE cells that had accumulated the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E and were exposed to blue light (430 nm). METHODS: A2E-laden RPE cells were exposed to blue light (A2E/430 nm) at various time intervals. Cell death was quantified using Dead Red staining, and RNA levels for the entire genome was determined using DNA microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome 2.0 Plus). Array results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Principal component analysis revealed that the A2E-laden RPE cells irradiated with blue light were clearly distinguishable from the control samples. We found differential regulation of genes belonging to the following functional groups: transcription factors, stress response, apoptosis and immune response. Among the last mentioned were downregulation of four genes that coded for proteins that have an inhibitory effect on the complement cascade: (complement factor H, complement factor H-related 1, complement factor I and vitronectin) and of two belonging to the classical pathway (complement component 1, s subcomponent and complement component 1, r subcomponent). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that blue light irradiation of A2E-laden RPE cells can alter the transcription of genes belonging to different functional pathways including stress response, apoptosis and the immune response. We suggest that these molecules may be associated to the pathogenesis of AMD and can potentially serve as future therapeutic targets.
Address Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Eye Research Unit, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkDepartment of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkDepartment of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1755-375X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23742627 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 346
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