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Author Elvidge, C.; Zhizhin, M.; Hsu, F.-C.; Baugh, K.
Title VIIRS Nightfire: Satellite Pyrometry at Night Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 5 Issue 9 Pages 4423-4449
Keywords SNPP; VIIRS; fire detection; gas flaring; biomass burning; fossil fuel carbon emissions
Abstract (down) The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally, each night, by the Suomi National Polar Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR), and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 μm. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites such as steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2), and radiant heat (MW). Use of the sensor noise limited M7, M8, and M10 spectral bands at night reduce scene background effects, which are widely reported for fire algorithms based on MWIR and long-wave infrared. High atmospheric transmissivity in the M10 spectral band reduces atmospheric effects on temperature and radiant heat retrievals. Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6,000 K. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Fire Radiative Power (MW).
Address Earth Observation Group, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO 80305, USA
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ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 199
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Author Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
Title Mice exposed to dim light at night exaggerate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Abbreviated Journal
Volume 34 Issue Pages 159-163
Keywords animals; rodents; metabolism; health
Abstract (down) The mammalian circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. Appropriately timed light information is essential for maintaining circadian organization. Over the past ∼120 years, urbanization and the widespread adoption of electric lights have dramatically altered lighting environments. Exposure to light at night (LAN) is pervasive in modern society and disrupts core circadian clock mechanisms. Because microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain and macrophages contain intrinsic circadian clocks, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to LAN would alter microglia cytokine expression and sickness behavior following LPS administration. Exposure to 4 weeks of dim LAN elevated inflammatory responses in mice. Mice exposed to dimly lit, as compared to dark, nights exaggerated changes in body temperature and elevated microglia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following LPS administration. Furthermore, dLAN mice had a prolonged sickness response following the LPS challenge. Mice exposed to dark or dimly lit nights had comparable sickness behavior directly following the LPS injection; however, dLAN mice showed greater reductions in locomotor activity, increased anorectic behavior, and increased weight loss than mice maintained in dark nights 24 h post-LPS injection. Overall, these data suggest that chronic exposure to even very low levels of light pollution may alter inflammatory responses. These results may have important implications for humans and other urban dwelling species that commonly experience nighttime light exposure.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1588
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Author Glass, J.; Ryan, P.
Title Reduced seabird night strikes and mortality in the Tristan rock lobster fishery Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication African Journal of Marine Science Abbreviated Journal African Journal of Marine Science
Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 589-592
Keywords storm petrels; Pelagodroma marina; Fregetta grallaria; Fregetta tropica; common diving petrel; Pelecanoides urinatrix; broad-billed prion; Pachyptila vittata; Tristan rock lobster; Jasus tristani; seabirds; birds; collision; Gough Island; Tristan
Abstract (down) The main impact of the fishery for Tristan rock lobster Jasus tristani on seabirds at the Tristan archipelago and Gough Island is through night strikes, when petrels collide with a ship after being disorientated by its lights. Tristan fishery observers have kept records of night strikes on the MV Edinburgh since the 2010/2011 fishing season. Over the last three years, 723 seabirds from nine species were recorded coming aboard the fishing vessel, with at least 39 (5.4%) birds dying as a result. Birds killed were broad-billed prions Pachyptila vittata (41%), common diving petrels Pelecanoides urinatrix (23%), and storm petrels (Pelagodroma marina and Fregetta grallaria/tropica 36%). All these species are listed as Least Concern globally, and the numbers killed per year are <0.1% of the island populations. The captain and crew of the Edinburgh are aware of the problem posed by deck lights at night, and attempt to keep external lighting to a minimum. As a result, the numbers of birds coming aboard vessels in this fishery have decreased from an average of 130 birds per night in 1989 to less than two birds per night in 2010–2013. Currently, most incidents occur during exceptional events when circumstances require deck lights to be lit at night. Consideration should be given to banning fishing operations at night, at least on misty nights.
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ISSN 1814-232X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 53
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Author Jones, A.; Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Szyszka, C.; Kimeswenger, S.
Title An advanced scattered moonlight model for Cerro Paranal Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Astronomy & Astrophysics Abbreviated Journal A&A
Volume 560 Issue Pages A91
Keywords Moonlight
Abstract (down) The largest natural source of light at night is the Moon, and it is the major contributor to the astronomical sky background. Being able to accurately predict the sky background, including scattered moonlight is important for scheduling astronomical observations. We have developed an improved scattered moonlight model, in which the components are computed with a better physical understanding as opposed to the simple empirical fit in the frequently used photometric model of Krisciunas & Schaefer (1991, PASP, 103, 1033). Our spectroscopic model can better trace the spectral trends of scattered moonlight for any position of the Moon and target observation. This is the first scattered moonlight model that we know of which is this physical and versatile. We have incorporated an observed solar spectrum, accurate lunar albedo fit, and elaborate scattering and absorption calculations that include scattering off of molecules and aerosols. It was designed for Cerro Paranal, but can be modified for any location with known atmospheric properties. Throughout the optical range, the uncertainty is less than 20%. This advanced scattered moonlight model can predict the amount of scattered moonlight for any given geometry of the Moon and target, and lunar phase for the entire optical spectrum.
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ISSN 0004-6361 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1461
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Author Brainard, G.C.; Coyle, W.; Ayers, M.; Kemp, J.; Warfield, B.; Maida, J.; Bowen, C.; Bernecker, C.; Lockley, S.W.; Hanifin, J.P.
Title Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: Tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Acta Astronautica Abbreviated Journal Acta Astronautica
Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 21-28
Keywords Human Health; Lighting
Abstract (down) The International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. Solid-state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are attractive candidates for replacing the GLAs on the ISS. The advantages of LEDs over conventional fluorescent light sources include lower up-mass, power consumption and heat generation, as well as fewer toxic materials, greater resistance to damage and long lamp life. A prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) was developed and successfully installed on the ISS. The broad aim of the ongoing work is to test light emitted by prototype SSLAs for supporting astronaut vision and assessing neuroendocrine, circadian, neurobehavioral and sleep effects. Three completed ground-based studies are presented here including experiments on visual performance, color discrimination, and acute plasma melatonin suppression in cohorts of healthy, human subjects under different SSLA light exposure conditions within a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Quarters (CQ). All visual tests were done under indirect daylight at 201 lx, fluorescent room light at 531 lx and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ at 1266 lx. Visual performance was assessed with numerical verification tests (NVT). NVT data show that there are no significant differences in score (F=0.73, p=0.48) or time (F=0.14, p=0.87) for subjects performing five contrast tests (10%–100%). Color discrimination was assessed with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue tests (FM-100). The FM-100 data showed no significant differences (F=0.01, p=0.99) in color discrimination for indirect daylight, fluorescent room light and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ. Plasma melatonin suppression data show that there are significant differences (F=29.61, p<0.0001) across the percent change scores of plasma melatonin for five corneal irradiances, ranging from 0 to 405 &#956;W/cm2 of 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ (0–1270 lx). Risk factors for the health and safety of astronauts include disturbed circadian rhythms and altered sleep–wake patterns. These studies will help determine if SSLA lighting can be used both to support astronaut vision and serve as an in-flight countermeasure for circadian desynchrony, sleep disruption and cognitive performance deficits on the ISS.
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ISSN 0094-5765 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1533
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