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Author Bukalev, A.V.; Vinogradova, I.A.; Zabezhinskii, M.A.; Semenchenko, A.V.; Anisimov, V.N.
Title Light pollution increases morbidity and mortality rate from different causes in female rats Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Advances in Gerontology Abbreviated Journal Adv Gerontol
Volume 3 Issue 3 Pages 180-188
Keywords light-at-night; spontaneous tumors; nontumor pathology epiphysis; rats; animals; mammals
Abstract (down) The influence of different light regimes (constant light, LL; constant darkness, DD; standard light regime, LD, 12 hours light/12 hours darkness; and natural lighting of the northwest of Russia (NL) on non-tumor pathology revealed in the post-mortem examination of female rats has been studied. It was found that keeping 25-days-old animals under LL and NL conditions led to an increase in the number of infectious diseases and the substantially faster development of spontaneous tumors (2.9 and 3.3 diseases per one rat, respectively), variety of nontumor pathology found in dead rats, compared with the animals in standard (standard light) regime (1.72 diseases per one rat). Light deprivation (DD) led to a substantial reduction in the development of new growth, as well as nontumor and infectious diseases (1.06 diseases per one rat), compared to the same parameters in a standard light regime.
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Corporate Author Thesis
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2079-0570 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 89
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Author Wright, K.P.J.; McHill, A.W.; Birks, B.R.; Griffin, B.R.; Rusterholz, T.; Chinoy, E.D.
Title Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light-dark cycle Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 23 Issue 16 Pages 1554-1558
Keywords Human Health; Adult; Circadian Clocks/*radiation effects; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; *Photoperiod; *Sunlight; Young Adult; Circadian Rhythm
Abstract (down) The electric light is one of the most important human inventions. Sleep and other daily rhythms in physiology and behavior, however, evolved in the natural light-dark cycle [1], and electrical lighting is thought to have disrupted these rhythms. Yet how much the age of electrical lighting has altered the human circadian clock is unknown. Here we show that electrical lighting and the constructed environment is associated with reduced exposure to sunlight during the day, increased light exposure after sunset, and a delayed timing of the circadian clock as compared to a summer natural 14 hr 40 min:9 hr 20 min light-dark cycle camping. Furthermore, we find that after exposure to only natural light, the internal circadian clock synchronizes to solar time such that the beginning of the internal biological night occurs at sunset and the end of the internal biological night occurs before wake time just after sunrise. In addition, we find that later chronotypes show larger circadian advances when exposed to only natural light, making the timing of their internal clocks in relation to the light-dark cycle more similar to earlier chronotypes. These findings have important implications for understanding how modern light exposure patterns contribute to late sleep schedules and may disrupt sleep and circadian clocks.
Address Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0354, USA. kenneth.wright@colorado.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23910656; PMCID:PMC4020279 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 505
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Hopkins, J.
Title The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution: a mechanistic appraisal Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc
Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 912-927
Keywords dark; information; light; moonlight; night; pollution; resources; rhythms; time
Abstract (down) The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution have been a longstanding source of concern, accentuated by realized and projected growth in electrical lighting. As human communities and lighting technologies develop, artificial light increasingly modifies natural light regimes by encroaching on dark refuges in space, in time, and across wavelengths. A wide variety of ecological implications of artificial light have been identified. However, the primary research to date is largely focused on the disruptive influence of nighttime light on higher vertebrates, and while comprehensive reviews have been compiled along taxonomic lines and within specific research domains, the subject is in need of synthesis within a common mechanistic framework. Here we propose such a framework that focuses on the cross-factoring of the ways in which artificial lighting alters natural light regimes (spatially, temporally, and spectrally), and the ways in which light influences biological systems, particularly the distinction between light as a resource and light as an information source. We review the evidence for each of the combinations of this cross-factoring. As artificial lighting alters natural patterns of light in space, time and across wavelengths, natural patterns of resource use and information flows may be disrupted, with downstream effects to the structure and function of ecosystems. This review highlights: (i) the potential influence of nighttime lighting at all levels of biological organisation (from cell to ecosystem); (ii) the significant impact that even low levels of nighttime light pollution can have; and (iii) the existence of major research gaps, particularly in terms of the impacts of light at population and ecosystem levels, identification of intensity thresholds, and the spatial extent of impacts in the vicinity of artificial lights.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, U.K
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3231 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23565807 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 14
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Author Vullings, L.A.E.; Blok, C.A.; Wessels, C.G.A.M.; Bulens, J.D.
Title Dealing with the Uncertainty of Having Incomplete Sources of Geo-Information in Spatial Planning Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy Abbreviated Journal Appl. Spatial Analysis
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 25-45
Keywords Economics
Abstract (down) The Dutch spatial planning legal act of 2008 was aimed at improving efficiency and effectiveness in the development, evaluation and monitoring of spatial planning policy (Ministry of VROM, 2006a). One of the main effects of this legal act was the widespread availability and use of digital spatial plans (Ministry of VROM 2006a, b). This reform led to the expectation that all digital spatial plans would be exchangeable and comparable. In practice, this exchange and comparison required carrying out complex procedures due to uncertainty caused by differences in the scope of spatial plans as well as their intended use. Furthermore the uncertainty resulted in a lack of confidence in spatial plans by policymakers and supporting GIS staff. Our overarching research question was: how can uncertainty caused by incomplete geo-information sources be dealt with? We proposed two techniques—fuzzy logic and visualisation—for policy makers to deal with uncertainty resulting from incomplete geo-information sources in spatial planning at the regional and national planning levels. We used two case studies in the Netherlands to illustrate the results of applying these techniques. The fuzzy set theory provides extra information by converting the discrete borders of continuous objects into fuzzy borders that improve the resemblance to the real object and thus make it more realistic. As shown in the second case study, visualisation also improves the degree of realism and thus provides additional information. Both case studies showed that providing additional information reduces the uncertainty felt by policymakers.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1874-463X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 436
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Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title Night on Earth: Mapping decadal changes of anthropogenic night light in Asia Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation
Volume 22 Issue Pages 40-52
Keywords Urban; Night light; DMSP-OLS; Landsat; Zipf; Asia; India; China; Nightsat; remote sensing; light at night; satellite
Abstract (down) The defense meteorological satellite program (DMSP) operational linescan system (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970s. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years (Elvidge et al., 2009). The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of the growth and evolution of lighted human settlements and development. We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the temporal feature space to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs and spatial structure of the PCs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic multi-year trends and stochastic year-to-year variance. The low order EOFs and principal components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict potentially deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. At critical brightness threshold we find an 18% increase in the number of spatially distinct lights and an 80% increase in lighted area in southern and eastern Asia between 1992 and 2009. During this time both China and India experienced a &#8764;20% increase in number of lights and a &#8764;270% increase in lighted area – although the timing of the increase is later in China than in India. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are apparent in tri-temporal brightness composites – as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution Landsat imagery verifies multiple phases of urban growth in several cities as well as the consistent presence of low DN (<&#8764;15) background luminance for many agricultural areas. Lights also allow us to quantify changes in the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, the size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are consistent with power laws with exponents near &#8722;1 as predicted by Zipf's Law for cities. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development (Small et al., 2011).
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 222
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