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Author Jackett, M.; Frith, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety -- A New Zealand Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication IATSS Research Abbreviated Journal IATSS Research  
  Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 139-145  
  Keywords Lighting; roadway lighting; road safety; traffic safety; public safety  
  Abstract (up) It is well known from the literature that road lighting has significant safety benefits. The NZTA Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) quotes a 35% reduction in crashes as the effect of upgrading or improving lighting where lighting is poor.

However, no well-established dose–response relationship to lighting parameters exists from which one can deduce benchmark levels of lighting for safety.

This study looked at a sample of street lighting installations spread over the urban areas of nine territorial local authorities. Standard street lighting parameters were measured in the field using a variety of instruments including illuminance meter, luminance meter and digital camera. Field measurements were related to the ratio of night-time to day time crashes as a measure of night time safety vis-a-vis daytime safety.

A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found between average road luminance and safety across all traffic volume groups, with an indication that the relationship may be stronger where more serious crashes are involved.

Threshold increment was also a significant variable but not so longitudinal uniformity or overall uniformity.

The results related to luminance will allow practitioners to better estimate the safety benefits of different levels of lighting resulting in better targeting of expenditure.
 
  Address Jackett Consulting, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; jackett(at)paradise.net.nz  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0386-1112 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 638  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bedrosian, T.A. (ed) pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Circadian Disruption by Light at Night: Implications for Mood Type Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords circadian disruption; sleep; light at night; melanopsin; mood; mental health; Mood Disorders; epigenetics; red light  
  Abstract (up) Life on Earth has adapted to a consistent 24-h solar cycle. Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior remain synchronized to the environment using light as the most potent entraining cue. During the past century, however, the widespread adoption of electric light has led to `round-the-clock’ societies. Instead of aligning with the environment, individuals follow artificial and often erratic light cycles created by social and work schedules. In particular, exposure to artificial light at night (LAN), termed “light pollution”, has become pervasive over the past 100 years. Virtually every individual living in the U.S. and Europe experiences this aberrant light exposure, and moreover about 20% of the population performs shift work. LAN may disrupt physiological timekeeping, leading to dysregulation of internal processes and misalignment between behavior and the environment. Recent evidence suggests that individuals exposed to excessive LAN, such as night shift workers, have increased risk for depressive disorders, but the biological mechanism remains unspecified. In mammals, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) project light information to (1) the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus, regulating circadian rhythms, and (2) to limbic regions, putatively regulating mood. Thus, LAN has the potential to affect both circadian timekeeping and mood. In this dissertation, I present evidence from rodent studies supporting the novel hypothesis that night-time exposure to light disrupts circadian organization and contributes to depressed mood. First, I consider the physiological and behavioral consequences associated with unnatural exposure to LAN. The effects of LAN on circadian output are considered in terms of locomotor activity, the diurnal cortisol rhythm, and diurnal clock protein expression in the brain in Chapter 2. The influence of LAN on behavior and brain plasticity is discussed, with particular focus on depressive-like behavior (Chapter 3) and effects of SSRI treatment (Chapter 4). Effects of LAN on structural plasticity and gene expression in the brain are described, with emphasis on potential correlates of the depressive-like behavior observed under LAN in Chapter 5. Given the prevalence of LAN exposure and its importance, strategies for reversing the effects are offered. Specifically, eliminating LAN quickly reverses behavioral and physiological effects of exposure as described in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6 I report that administration of a pharmacological cytokine inhibitor prevents depressive-like behaviors in LAN, implicating brain inflammation in the behavioral effect. Finally, I demonstrate in Chapter 7 that exposure to red wavelength LAN reduces the effects on brain and behavior, suggesting that LAN acts through specific retinal pathways involving melanopsin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the consequences of LAN, but also outline potential avenues for prevention or intervention.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience and The Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research The Ohio State University  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Bedrosian, T.A.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 323  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bedrosian, T.A.; Vaughn, C.A.; Galan, A.; Daye, G.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nocturnal light exposure impairs affective responses in a wavelength-dependent manner Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Neurosci  
  Volume 33 Issue 32 Pages 13081-13087  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Female; Food Deprivation/physiology; Food Preferences/physiology/radiation effects; Fourier Analysis; Gene Expression Regulation/radiation effects; Hippocampus/pathology/radiation effects; Immobility Response, Tonic/radiation effects; Light/*adverse effects; Mood Disorders/*etiology/pathology; Motor Activity/physiology/radiation effects; Phodopus; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism; Social Behavior; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism; Time Factors  
  Abstract (up) Life on earth is entrained to a 24 h solar cycle that synchronizes circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior; light is the most potent entraining cue. In mammals, light is detected by (1) rods and cones, which mediate visual function, and (2) intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which primarily project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus to regulate circadian rhythms. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates that ipRGCs also project to limbic brain regions, suggesting that, through this pathway, light may have a role in cognition and mood. Therefore, it follows that unnatural exposure to light may have negative consequences for mood or behavior. Modern environmental lighting conditions have led to excessive exposure to light at night (LAN), and particularly to blue wavelength lights. We hypothesized that nocturnal light exposure (i.e., dim LAN) would induce depressive responses and alter neuronal structure in hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). If this effect is mediated by ipRGCs, which have reduced sensitivity to red wavelength light, then we predicted that red LAN would have limited effects on brain and behavior compared with shorter wavelengths. Additionally, red LAN would not induce c-Fos activation in the SCN. Our results demonstrate that exposure to LAN influences behavior and neuronal plasticity and that this effect is likely mediated by ipRGCs. Modern sources of LAN that contain blue wavelengths may be particularly disruptive to the circadian system, potentially contributing to altered mood regulation.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. Bedrosian.2@osu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0270-6474 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23926261 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 27  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kantermann, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian biology: sleep-styles shaped by light-styles Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 16 Pages R689-90  
  Keywords Human Health; Circadian Clocks/*radiation effects; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; *Photoperiod; *Sunlight  
  Abstract (up) Light and darkness are the main time cues synchronising all biological clocks to the external environment. This little understood evolutionary phenomenon is called circadian entrainment. A new study illuminates our understanding of how modern light- and lifestyles compromise circadian entrainment and impact our biological clocks.  
  Address Chronobiology – Centre for Behaviour and Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands. thomas@kantermann.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23968925 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 501  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Chellappa, S.L.; Steiner, R.; Oelhafen, P.; Lang, D.; Gotz, T.; Krebs, J.; Cajochen, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acute exposure to evening blue-enriched light impacts on human sleep Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Sleep Research Abbreviated Journal J Sleep Res  
  Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 573-580  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract (up) Light in the short wavelength range (blue light: 446-483 nm) elicits direct effects on human melatonin secretion, alertness and cognitive performance via non-image-forming photoreceptors. However, the impact of blue-enriched polychromatic light on human sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalographic activity remains fairly unknown. In this study we investigated sleep structure and sleep electroencephalographic characteristics of 30 healthy young participants (16 men, 14 women; age range 20-31 years) following 2 h of evening light exposure to polychromatic light at 6500 K, 2500 K and 3000 K. Sleep structure across the first three non-rapid eye movement non-rapid eye movement – rapid eye movement sleep cycles did not differ significantly with respect to the light conditions. All-night non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalographic power density indicated that exposure to light at 6500 K resulted in a tendency for less frontal non-rapid eye movement electroencephalographic power density, compared to light at 2500 K and 3000 K. The dynamics of non-rapid eye movement electroencephalographic slow wave activity (2.0-4.0 Hz), a functional index of homeostatic sleep pressure, were such that slow wave activity was reduced significantly during the first sleep cycle after light at 6500 K compared to light at 2500 K and 3000 K, particularly in the frontal derivation. Our data suggest that exposure to blue-enriched polychromatic light at relatively low room light levels impacts upon homeostatic sleep regulation, as indexed by reduction in frontal slow wave activity during the first non-rapid eye movement episode.  
  Address Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Cyclotron Research Center, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-1105 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23509952 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2201  
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