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Author Lorenc, T.; Petticrew, M.; Whitehead, M.; Neary, D.; Clayton, S.; Wright, K.; Thomson, H.; Cummins, S.; Sowden, A.; Renton, A.
Title Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Syst Rev
Volume 2 Issue Pages 30
Keywords *Crime; *Environment Design; *Fear; Humans; Milieu Therapy/*standards; *Public Health; *Safety
Abstract BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. METHODS: This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.
Address Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 5-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK. theo.lorenc@lshtm.ac.uk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2046-4053 ISBN Medium
Area (up) Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23663285; PMCID:PMC3660218 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 251
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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.
Volume 3 Issue Pages
Keywords Artificial light; light at nightl skyglow; measurements
Abstract Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.
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ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 255
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.
Title Skyglow effects in UV and visible spectra: radiative fluxes Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume 127 Issue Pages 300-307
Keywords Animals; Darkness; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; *Light; Models, Theoretical; *Ultraviolet Rays; Light pollution; Optical thickness; Public lighting system; Two stream approximation
Abstract Several studies have tried to understand the mechanisms and effects of radiative transfer under different night-sky conditions. However, most of these studies are limited to the various effects of visible spectra. Nevertheless, the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can pose a more profound threat to nature. One visible threat is from what is popularly termed skyglow. Such skyglow is caused by injudiciously situated or designed artificial night lighting systems which degrade desired sky viewing. Therefore, since lamp emissions are not limited to visible electromagnetic spectra, it is necessary to consider the complete spectrum of such lamps in order to understand the physical behaviour of diffuse radiation at terrain level. In this paper, the downward diffuse radiative flux is computed in a two-stream approximation and obtained ultraviolet spectral radiative fluxes are inter-related with luminous fluxes. Such a method then permits an estimate of ultraviolet radiation if the traditionally measured illuminance on a horizontal plane is available. The utility of such a comparison of two spectral bands is shown, using the different lamp types employed in street lighting. The data demonstrate that it is insufficient to specify lamp type and its visible flux production independently of each other. Also the UV emissions have to be treated by modellers and environmental scientists because some light sources can be fairly important pollutants in the near ultraviolet. Such light sources can affect both the living organisms and ambient environment.
Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 9, Dubravska Road, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. kocifaj@savba.sk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
Area (up) Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23792881 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 265
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Author Sciezor, T.
Title A new astronomical method for determining the brightness of the night sky and its application to study long-term changes in the level of light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume 435 Issue 1 Pages 303-310
Keywords light pollution methods; data analysis methods; observational site testing; comets; measurements; light pollution; skyglow
Abstract In this paper, I present a new method that has been developed for determining the brightness of a cloudless night sky, on the basis of widely available amateur observations of comets. The tests show the correctness of the method, which makes it possible to determine the level of light pollution, defined as the brightness of the artificial sky glow, through the use of the archival observations of comets. The use of data bases of comet observations in Poland in the period 1994–2009 has led to a positive verification of the known model map of the brightness of the night sky. Also, it has been possible to find changes in the level of light pollution in this period, at the selected observation sites.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 266
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Author Johansson, M.; Pedersen, E.; Maleetipwan-Mattsson, P.; Kuhn, L.; Laike, T.
Title Perceived outdoor lighting quality (POLQ): A lighting assessment tool Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Environmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Psychology
Volume 39 Issue Pages 14-21
Keywords Perception; Street lighting; Observation-based environmental assessment; Urban space
Abstract A shift towards more energy-efficient light sources for outdoor lighting such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is underway. Photometric measures are not sufficient to capture how users experience the light, so complementary tools are required. This study aimed to develop an observer-based environmental assessment tool, based on bipolar semantic differentials, for outdoor lighting in urban spaces. Exploratory (N = 130) and confirmatory (N = 117) factor analyses of observations of lighting installations made by laypersons on-site along pedestrian paths, resulted in two dimensions of high reliability: the Perceived Strength Quality (PSQ, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82–0.85) and the Perceived Comfort Quality (PCQ, Cronbach's alpha = 0.77–0.81). PSQ and PCQ differentiated between light sources of different illuminance level, colour temperature and colour rendering. Regression analyses showed that the perceived lighting qualities helped to explain the variance in visual accessibility, whereas PCQ helped to explain perceived danger in the environment. The perceived lighting qualities can add to the understanding of pedestrians' perception of outdoor lighting, and is proposed as a complementary tool for development of sustainable light designs in the urban environment.
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ISSN 0272-4944 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 279
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