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Author (down) Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Kocifaj, M.
Title Light pollution in ultraviolet and visible spectrum: effect on different visual perceptions Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages e56563
Keywords Lighting; Animals; *Environmental Pollution; Humans; Insects; Light; Lighting/*adverse effects; Models, Theoretical; *Visual Perception
Abstract In general terms, lighting research has been focused in the development of artificial light with the purpose of saving energy and having more durable lamps. However, the consequences that artificial night lighting could bring to the human being and living organisms have become an important issue recently. Light pollution represents a significant problem to both the environment and human health causing a disruption of biological rhythms related not only to the visible spectrum, but also to other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since the lamps emit across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, all photobiological species may be exposed to another type of light pollution. By comparing five different lamps, the present study attempts to evaluate UV radiative fluxes relative to what humans and two species of insects perceive as sky glow level. We have analyzed three atmospheric situations: clear sky, overcast sky and evolving precipitable water content. One important finding suggests that when a constant illuminance of urban spaces has to be guaranteed the sky glow from the low pressure sodium lamps has the most significant effect to the visual perception of the insects tested. But having the fixed number of luminaires the situation changes and the low pressure sodium lamp would be the best choice for all three species. The sky glow effects can be interpreted correctly only if the lamp types and the required amount of scotopic luxes at the ground are taken into account simultaneously. If these two factors are combined properly, then the ecological consequences of sky glow can be partly reduced. The results of this research may be equally useful for lighting engineers, architects, biologists and researchers who are studying the effects of sky glow on humans and biodiversity.
Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. lamphar@gmail.com
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23441205; PMCID:PMC3575508 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 578
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Author (down) Snyder, J.D.; Bullough, J.D.; Radetsky, L.C.
Title Innovative Roadway Light Source and Dye Combinations to Improve Visibility and Reduce Environmental Impacts. Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication National Technical Information Service report Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting Systems
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 444
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Author (down) Smith, S.D.P.; McIntyre, P.B.; Halpern, B.S.; Cooke, R.M.; Marino, A.L.; Boyer, G.L.; Buchsbaum, A.; Burton, J., G. Allen; Campbell, L.M.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Doran, P.J.; Infante, D.M.; Johnson, L.B.; Read, J.G.; Rose, J.B.; Rutherford, E.S.; Steinman, A.D.; Allan, J.D.
Title Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Ecological Applications Abbreviated Journal Ecological Applications
Volume Issue Pages 140915094202006
Keywords Great Lakes; limnology; light pollution; environment; stressor; ecology
Abstract Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in relative impact can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors to have some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.
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ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 372
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Author (down) Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D.
Title Night on Earth: Mapping decadal changes of anthropogenic night light in Asia Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation
Volume 22 Issue Pages 40-52
Keywords Urban; Night light; DMSP-OLS; Landsat; Zipf; Asia; India; China; Nightsat; remote sensing; light at night; satellite
Abstract The defense meteorological satellite program (DMSP) operational linescan system (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970s. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years (Elvidge et al., 2009). The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of the growth and evolution of lighted human settlements and development. We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the temporal feature space to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs and spatial structure of the PCs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic multi-year trends and stochastic year-to-year variance. The low order EOFs and principal components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict potentially deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. At critical brightness threshold we find an 18% increase in the number of spatially distinct lights and an 80% increase in lighted area in southern and eastern Asia between 1992 and 2009. During this time both China and India experienced a &#8764;20% increase in number of lights and a &#8764;270% increase in lighted area – although the timing of the increase is later in China than in India. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are apparent in tri-temporal brightness composites – as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution Landsat imagery verifies multiple phases of urban growth in several cities as well as the consistent presence of low DN (<&#8764;15) background luminance for many agricultural areas. Lights also allow us to quantify changes in the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, the size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are consistent with power laws with exponents near &#8722;1 as predicted by Zipf's Law for cities. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development (Small et al., 2011).
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ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 222
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Author (down) Shimose, T.; Yokawa, K.; Tachihara, K.
Title Higher Catch Rates Around the Full Moon for Blue Marlin, Makaira Nigricans, in a Diurnal Trolling Fishery Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Bulletin of Marine Science Abbreviated Journal Bms
Volume 89 Issue 3 Pages 759-765
Keywords fish; blue marlin; Makaira nigricans; Moon; moonlight; Feeding Behavior
Abstract The relationship between lunar phase and catch rates of blue marlin, Makaira nigricans Lacépède, 1802, in a diurnal trolling fishery at Yonaguni Island, southwestern Japan, was investigated. The mean catch per unit effort of blue marlin to lunar day was expressed by a periodic regression and significantly increased around the full moon. The stomach content index also significantly increased around the full moon in small blue marlin (<200 cm lower jaw–fork length), indicating that diurnal feeding activities of blue marlin increased around the full moon, especially for smaller individuals. The diurnal feeding activity is thought to be influenced by the nighttime activities of blue marlin and/or prey movements.
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ISSN 0007-4977 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 63
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