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Author (down) Lyytimäki, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nature's nocturnal services: Light pollution as a non-recognised challenge for ecosystem services research and management Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Ecosystem Services Abbreviated Journal Ecosystem Services  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages e44-e48  
  Keywords Economics; Ecosystem disservices; Ecosystem services; Environmental management; Light pollution; Scotoecology; Shifting baselines  
  Abstract Research focusing on ecosystem services has tackled several of the major drivers of environmental degradation, but it suffers from a blind spot related to light pollution. Light pollution caused by artificial night-time lighting is a global environmental change affecting terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. The long-term effects of the disruption of the natural cycles of light and dark on ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services are largely unknown. Even though additional research is clearly needed, identifying, developing and implementing stringent management actions aimed at reducing inadequately installed, unnecessary or excessive lighting are well justified. This essay argues that management is hampered, because ecosystem services from nocturnal nature are increasingly underappreciated by the public due to shifting baseline syndrome, making most people accustomed to constantly illuminated and light-polluted night environments. Increased attention from scientists, managers and the public is needed in order to explicate the best options for preserving the benefits from natural darkness.  
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  ISSN 2212-0416 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 433  
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Author (down) Lorenz, D. url  openurl
  Title Light Pollution Atlas 2006 Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 958  
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Author (down) Lorenc, T.; Petticrew, M.; Whitehead, M.; Neary, D.; Clayton, S.; Wright, K.; Thomson, H.; Cummins, S.; Sowden, A.; Renton, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Syst Rev  
  Volume 2 Issue Pages 30  
  Keywords *Crime; *Environment Design; *Fear; Humans; Milieu Therapy/*standards; *Public Health; *Safety  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. METHODS: This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.  
  Address Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 5-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK. theo.lorenc@lshtm.ac.uk  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2046-4053 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23663285; PMCID:PMC3660218 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 251  
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Author (down) Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Mineau, P.; MacDonald, B.; Bert, D.G.; Sullivan, L.M.; Mutrie, E.; Gauthreaux Jr., S.A.; Avery, M.L.; Crawford, R.L.; Manville II, A.M.; Travis, E.R.; Drake, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 158 Issue Pages 410-419  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Birds migrating to and from breeding grounds in the United States and Canada are killed by the millions in collisions with lighted towers and their guy wires. Avian mortality at towers is highly variable across species, and the importance to each population depends on its size and trajectory. Building on our previous estimate of avian mortality at communication towers, we calculated mortality by species and by regions. To do this, we constructed a database of mortality by species at towers from available records and calculated the mean proportion of each species killed at towers within aggregated Bird Conservation Regions. These proportions were combined with mortality estimates that we previously calculated for those regions. We then compared our estimated bird mortality rates to the estimated populations of these species in the United States and Canada. Neotropical migrants suffer the greatest mortality; 97.4% of birds killed are passerines, mostly warblers (Parulidae, 58.4%), vireos (Vireonidae, 13.4%), thrushes (Turdidae, 7.7%), and sparrows (Emberizidae, 5.8%). Thirteen birds of conservation concern in the United States or Canada suffer annual mortality of 1–9% of their estimated total population. Of these, estimated annual mortality is >2% for Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis), Swainson’s Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii), Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea), Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera), Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorum), Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor), and Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla). Avian mortality from anthropogenic sources is almost always reported in the aggregate (“number of birds killed”), which cannot detect the species-level effects necessary to make conservation assessments. Our approach to per species estimates could be undertaken for other sources of chronic anthropogenic mortality.  
  Address Communication towers; Mortality; Night lighting; Neotropical migrants; Collisions; Impact assessment; birds  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 54  
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Author (down) Liao, L.B.; Weiss, S.; Mills, S.; Hauss, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Suomi NPP VIIRS day-night band on-orbit performance: VIIRS DAY-NIGHT BAND PERFORMANCE Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres Abbreviated Journal J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.  
  Volume 118 Issue 22 Pages 12,705-12,718  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2169897X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 956  
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Author (down) Li, X.; Xu, H.; Chen, X.; Li, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Potential of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Imagery for Modeling the Regional Economy of China Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 5 Issue 6 Pages 3057-3081  
  Keywords nighttime light; gross regional product; Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite; linear regression  
  Abstract Historically, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) was the unique satellite sensor used to collect the nighttime light, which is an efficient means to map the global economic activities. Since it was launched in October 2011, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Satellite has become a new satellite used to monitor nighttime light. This study performed the first evaluation on the NPP-VIIRS nighttime light imagery in modeling economy, analyzing 31 provincial regions and 393 county regions in China. For each region, the total nighttime light (TNL) and gross regional product (GRP) around the year of 2010 were derived, and a linear regression model was applied on the data. Through the regression, the TNL from NPP-VIIRS were found to exhibit R2 values of 0.8699 and 0.8544 with the provincial GRP and county GRP, respectively, which are significantly stronger than the relationship between the TNL from DMSP-OLS (F16 and F18 satellites) and GRP. Using the regression models, the GRP was predicted from the TNL for each region, and we found that the NPP-VIIRS data is more predictable for the GRP than those of the DMSP-OLS data. This study demonstrates that the recently released NPP-VIIRS nighttime light imagery has a stronger capacity in modeling regional economy than those of the DMSP-OLS data. These findings provide a foundation to model the global and regional economy with the recently availability of the NPP-VIIRS data, especially in the regions where economic census data is difficult to access.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 201  
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Author (down) Li, X.; Ge, L.; Chen, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Detecting Zimbabwe's Decadal Economic Decline Using Nighttime Light Imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing  
  Volume 5 Issue 9 Pages 4551-4570  
  Keywords Zimbabwe; economic decline; nighttime light; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; light at night  
  Abstract Zimbabwe’s economy declined between 2000 and 2009. This study detects the economic decline in different regions of Zimbabwe using nighttime light imagery from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS). We found a good correlation (coefficient = 0.7361) between Zimbabwe’s total nighttime light (TNL) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the period 1992 to 2009. Therefore, TNL was used as an indicator of regional economic conditions in Zimbabwe. Nighttime light imagery from 2000 and 2008 was compared at both national and regional scales for four types of regions. At the national scale, we found that nighttime light in more than half of the lit area decreased between 2000 and 2008. Moreover, within the four region types (inland mining towns, inland agricultural towns, border towns and cities) we determined that the mining and agricultural sectors experienced the most severe economic decline. Some of these findings were validated by economic survey data, proving that the nighttime light data is a potential data source for detecting the economic decline in Zimbabwe.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 212  
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Author (down) Li, X.; Chen, X.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, J.; Chen, F.; Li, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Automatic intercalibration of night-time light imagery using robust regression Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Remote Sensing Letters Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing Letters  
  Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages 45-54  
  Keywords remote sensing; light at night  
  Abstract In remote-sensing community, radiometric calibration of night-time light images has long been a problem, hindering change detection of images in different dates. Currently, an intercalibration model is regarded as the unique solution for the problem, but prior knowledge is needed to extract reference pixels with stable lights, which are hard to obtain in most of the applications. This study proposed an automatic algorithm to extract the reference pixels for convenient use of the intercalibration model, with an assumption that there are sufficient pixels with stable night-time lights in the multi-temporal images. To automatically extract the stable pixels from images in two dates, all pixels in the two dates were entered into a linear regression model, and the outliers viewed as suspected changed pixels were discarded iteratively. Consequently, some stable pixels were extracted and the intercalibration model was implemented. Annual night-time light composites in Beijing, China, from 1992 to 2010 were taken as the study material, and the results show that the multi-temporal calibrated night-time light data have higher correlation with gross domestic production (GDP) (R 2 = 0.8734) and urban population (UP) (R 2 = 0.9269) than those of the uncalibrated images (with the R 2 values 0.7963 and 0.8575, respectively). Furthermore, the data inconsistency from different night-time light satellites in the same year was reduced with the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is effective in intercalibrating the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) images automatically.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2150-704X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 211  
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Author (down) Li, X.; Chen, F.; Chen, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Satellite-Observed Nighttime Light Variation as Evidence for Global Armed Conflicts Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observations Remote Sensing  
  Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 2302-2315  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Society  
  Abstract The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of nighttime light images, acquired with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS), in evaluating global armed conflicts. To achieve this purpose, we assessed the relationship between armed conflicts and the satellite-observed nighttime light variation over 159 countries through annual composites of the nighttime light images. Firstly, a light ratio index was developed to reduce the data inconsistency of annual nighttime light images during 1992-2010. Then 12 countries were selected as examples for a primary investigation, and we found the outbreak of a war can reduce the light and the ceasefire can increase the light from the remote sensing images, which indicates armed conflict events always have significant impact on the nighttime light. Based on this assertion, a nighttime light variation index (NLVI) was developed to quantify the variation of the time series nighttime light. Then using conditional probability analysis, the probability of a country suffering from armed conflicts increases with increase of NLVI. Particularly, when the NLVI value is in a very high level as defined, 80% of the countries have experienced armed conflicts. Furthermore, using correlation analysis, the number of global armed conflicts is highly correlated with the global NLVI in temporal dimension, with a correlation coefficient larger than 0.77. In summary, the potential of nighttime light images in armed conflict evaluation is extended from a regional scale to a global scale by this study.  
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  ISSN 1939-1404 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1876  
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Author (down) Lewanzik, D.; Voigt, C.C. url  openurl
  Title Lichtverschmutzung und die Folgen für Fledermäuse Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication In: Held, M., Hölker, F. & Jessel, B. (2013) Schutz der Nacht – Lichtverschmutzung, Biodiversität und Nachtlandschaft. – BfN-Skripten Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 336 Issue Pages 65-68  
  Keywords Animals  
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  Language German Summary Language Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 685  
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