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Author (down) Ringwald, R.; Rönitzsch, H.; Riedel, M.
Title Praxishandbuch Öffentliche Beleuchtung – Wirtschaftlichkeit, Recht, Technik Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication 1. Aufl. DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V., hrsg., Berlin Wien Zürich: Beuth Verlags GmbH. Abbreviated Journal
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Keywords Lighting
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1058
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Author (down) Riley, W. D.; Davison, P. I.; Maxwell, D. L.; Bendall, B.
Title Street lighting delays and disrupts the dispersal of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Biological conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 158 Issue Pages 140-146
Keywords animals; fish; animal behaviour
Abstract There has been a decline in the abundance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) despite significant conservation measures designed to reduce fishing mortality. Populations at the southern edge of their historical distribution, where anthropogenic impacts on the freshwater environment may be greater, have suffered the largest decline. In this investigation, we compared the timing of Atlantic salmon fry dispersal from incubators in an aquarium under control and ecologically relevant broad spectrum street-lit conditions (median night light intensity = 12 lx). Fry dispersal occurred 2.8 days later (F = 82.9, df = 1,8, p < 0.001), and on average the fry were smaller at dispersal (0.017 g, se = 0.0012, p < 0.001, n = 730), in the incubators exposed to street lighting. Significant disruption to the diel pattern of fry dispersal was also observed. Dispersal under control conditions was significantly directed around a mean time of 4:17 h after dusk (p < 0.001, r = 0.76, n = 1990) with very few fry (<2%) dispersing during daylight hours. Under street lighting, the dispersal of fry was significantly delayed (mean time 6:38 h after dusk; p < 0.001, r = 0.39, n = 2413) with a significant proportion (32%) dispersing during daylight hours. Survival to dispersal in the controlled aquarium conditions was not lower under street-lit conditions (p = 0.21, n = 5000 eggs across 10 incubators). However, in the wild, the period between fry emergence and the establishment of feeding territories is considered to be of critical importance in the dynamics of salmonid populations and any disruption may reduce fitness.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1599
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Author (down) Prugh, L.R.; Golden, C.D.
Title Does moonlight increase predation risk? Meta-analysis reveals divergent responses of nocturnal mammals to lunar cycles Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 83 Issue 2 Pages 504-514
Keywords foraging efficiency; giving-up density; illumination; indirect effects; lunar cycles; moonlight; nocturnality; phylogenetic meta-analysis; predation risk; risk-sensitive foraging
Abstract The risk of predation strongly affects mammalian population dynamics and community interactions. Bright moonlight is widely believed to increase predation risk for nocturnal mammals by increasing the ability of predators to detect prey, but the potential for moonlight to increase detection of predators and the foraging efficiency of prey has largely been ignored. Studies have reported highly variable responses to moonlight among species, calling into question the assumption that moonlight increases risk. Here, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis examining the effects of moonlight on the activity of 59 nocturnal mammal species to test the assumption that moonlight increases predation risk. We examined patterns of lunarphilia and lunarphobia across species in relation to factors such as trophic level, habitat cover preference and visual acuity. Across all species included in the meta-analysis, moonlight suppressed activity. The magnitude of suppression was similar to the presence of a predator in experimental studies of foraging rodents (13.6% and 18.7% suppression, respectively). Contrary to the expectation that moonlight increases predation risk for all prey species, however, moonlight effects were not clearly related to trophic level and were better explained by phylogenetic relatedness, visual acuity and habitat cover. Moonlight increased the activity of prey species that use vision as their primary sensory system and suppressed the activity of species that primarily use other senses (e.g. olfaction, echolocation), and suppression was strongest in open habitat types. Strong taxonomic patterns underlay these relationships: moonlight tended to increase primate activity, whereas it tended to suppress the activity of rodents, lagomorphs, bats and carnivores. These results indicate that visual acuity and habitat cover jointly moderate the effect of moonlight on predation risk, whereas trophic position has little effect. While the net effect of moonlight appears to increase predation risk for most nocturnal mammals, our results highlight the importance of sensory systems and phylogenetic history in determining the level of risk.
Address Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 311 Irving 1, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA
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ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:24102189 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 83
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Author (down) Pottharst, M.; Könecke, B.
Title The Night and Its Loss Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Springer Netherlands Abbreviated Journal
Volume 15 Issue Pages 37-48
Keywords Economy
Abstract Artificial lighting is both a precondition and a consequence of the 24-hour society. It makes public spaces safer, allows a range of economic and social activities at night and influences the way goods production and services, buildings and entire cities are organised. Despite these achievements, from early on, critical voices have drawn attention to the negative impact of artificial lighting on humans, animals, cityscapes, landscapes and energy consumption. This has recently culminated in growing criticism of ‘light pollution’. This chapter investigates from a socioeconomic perspective the economic and social functions of artificial light, on the one hand, and the ‘loss of the night’, on the other, and outlines a preliminary taxonomy of relevant positive and negative effects of nocturnal artificial light. It is part of a joint research project on the ‘loss of the night’, which aims to develop new concepts of lighting to reduce light pollution.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 867
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Author (down) Posch, T.; Hölker, F.; Freyhoff, A.; Uhlmann, T.
Title (Hrsg.): Das Ende der Nacht. Lichtsmog: Gefahren – Perspektiven – Lösungen. 2. Auflage, Wiley-VCH Verlag 2013 Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 231
Keywords Ecology
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 679
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