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Author (up) Clark, G.F.; Stark, J.S.; Johnston, E.L.; Runcie, J.W.; Goldsworthy, P.M.; Raymond, B.; Riddle, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-driven tipping points in polar ecosystems Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 3749-3761  
  Keywords Ecology; benthic; biodiversity; irradiance; macroalgae; marine ecology; polar; regime shift  
  Abstract Some ecosystems can undergo abrupt transformation in response to relatively small environmental change. Identifying imminent 'tipping points' is crucial for biodiversity conservation, particularly in the face of climate change. Here, we describe a tipping point mechanism likely to induce widespread regime shifts in polar ecosystems. Seasonal snow and ice-cover periodically block sunlight reaching polar ecosystems, but the effect of this on annual light depends critically on the timing of cover within the annual solar cycle. At high latitudes, sunlight is strongly seasonal, and ice-free days around the summer solstice receive orders of magnitude more light than those in winter. Early melt that brings the date of ice-loss closer to midsummer will cause an exponential increase in the amount of sunlight reaching some ecosystems per year. This is likely to drive ecological tipping points in which primary producers (plants and algae) flourish and out-compete dark-adapted communities. We demonstrate this principle on Antarctic shallow seabed ecosystems, which our data suggest are sensitive to small changes in the timing of sea-ice loss. Algae respond to light thresholds that are easily exceeded by a slight reduction in sea-ice duration. Earlier sea-ice loss is likely to cause extensive regime shifts in which endemic shallow-water invertebrate communities are replaced by algae, reducing coastal biodiversity and fundamentally changing ecosystem functioning. Modeling shows that recent changes in ice and snow cover have already transformed annual light budgets in large areas of the Arctic and Antarctic, and both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are likely to experience further significant change in light. The interaction between ice-loss and solar irradiance renders polar ecosystems acutely vulnerable to abrupt ecosystem change, as light-driven tipping points are readily breached by relatively slight shifts in the timing of snow and ice-loss.  
  Address School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23893603 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 850  
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Author (up) Collison, F.M.; Poe, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title “Astronomical Tourism”: The Astronomy and Dark Sky Program at Bryce Canyon National Park Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Tourism Management Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Tourism Management Perspectives  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 1-15  
  Keywords Astronomy-related tourism; National parks; Night sky darkness; astrotourism; dark skies  
  Abstract Astronomical tourism represents a less-studied segment of sustainable tourism, where a dark night sky is the underlying resource. This article evaluates an astronomical tourism program, in this case at a national park with dark skies for observing. Bryce Canyon National Park (BCNP) in the southwestern United States has a well-developed astronomy program to serve visitors. The program consists of solar viewing during the day, multimedia evening programs, and night-time star gazing with telescopes. Depending on the specific measure used, it appears that up to 10% of park visitors may be involved with the formal Astronomy and Dark Sky Program and/or more informal astronomy activities. BCNP appears well positioned to take advantage of the dark sky attributes of the park and to educate visitors about the importance of maintaining and/or increasing the darkness of night skies. Potential future developments in the program may serve to further increase the number of visitors to BCNP.  
  Address School of Travel Industry Management, 1901 Ruby Lane, Liberty, MO 64068; collison(at)hawaii.edu  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211-9736 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 128  
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Author (up) Conci, A. url  openurl
  Title SQM-PI:helping asronomers to measure light pollution Type Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Universita Trento Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis Master's thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 917  
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Author (up) Czeisler, C.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Perspective: casting light on sleep deficiency Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 497 Issue 7450 Pages S13  
  Keywords Human Health; Circadian Rhythm/physiology/radiation effects; Electricity/adverse effects; Humans; Jet Lag Syndrome/etiology/physiopathology/therapy; Lighting/*adverse effects; Melatonin/metabolism/secretion; Phototherapy; Sleep Deprivation/epidemiology/*etiology/*physiopathology/therapy; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/physiology/radiation effects  
  Abstract  
  Address Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. charles_czeisler@hms.harvard.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23698501 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 499  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Dacke, M.; Baird, E.; Byrne, M.; Scholtz, C.H.; Warrant, E.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 298-300  
  Keywords Animals; Beetles/*physiology; *Behavior, Animal; Cues; Feces; *Galaxies; Locomotion; Moon; Motor Activity; Orientation/*physiology; *Stars, Celestial; Vision, Ocular/physiology; Milky Way; insects  
  Abstract When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom.  
  Address Department of Biology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. marie.dacke@biol.lu.se  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23352694 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 116  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Artificial light; light at nightl skyglow; measurements  
  Abstract Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 255  
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Author (up) Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Gaston, Kevin J url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light pollution: are shifting spectral signatures changing the balance of species interactions? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biologyology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 19 Issue 5 Pages 1417-1423  
  Keywords animals; ecosystems; species interaction; human vision  
  Abstract Technological developments in municipal lighting are altering the spectral characteristics of artificially lit habitats. Little is yet known of the biological consequences of such changes, although a variety of animal behaviours are dependent on detecting the spectral signature of light reflected from objects. Using previously published wavelengths of peak visual pigment absorbance, we compared how four alternative street lamp technologies affect the visual abilities of 213 species of arachnid, insect, bird, reptile and mammal by producing different wavelength ranges of light to which they are visually sensitive. The proportion of the visually detectable region of the light spectrum emitted by each lamp was compared to provide an indication of how different technologies are likely to facilitate visually guided behaviours such as detecting objects in the environment. Compared to narrow spectrum lamps, broad spectrum technologies enable animals to detect objects that reflect light over more of the spectrum to which they are sensitive and, importantly, create greater disparities in this ability between major taxonomic groups. The introduction of broad spectrum street lamps could therefore alter the balance of species interactions in the artificially lit environment.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1584  
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Author (up) De Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J. M.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Ocaña, F.; Pascual Ramírez, S.; López Cayuela, M. A.,; et al. openurl 
  Title ). Contaminaci{ó}n lum{í}nica en Espa{ñ}a 2012: Light pollution in Spain 2012 Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication In Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VII Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages 956  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 926  
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Author (up) Dominoni, D.; Quetting, M.; Partecke, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 280 Issue 1756 Pages 20123017  
  Keywords Animals; *Lighting; Male; Molting; Photoperiod; Reproduction/*physiology; Singing; Songbirds/*physiology; Testis/anatomy & histology; Testosterone/blood; Trees  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution.  
  Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell 78315, Germany. ddominoni@orn.mpg.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23407836; PMCID:PMC3574380 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 50  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Dominoni, D.M.; Goymann, W.; Helm, B.; Partecke, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urban-like night illumination reduces melatonin release in European blackbirds (Turdus merula): implications of city life for biological time-keeping of songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Frontiers in Zoology Abbreviated Journal Front Zool  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 60  
  Keywords European blackbirds; birds; Turdus merula; animals; melatonin; *Photoperiod  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Artificial light-at-night is known to affect a broad array of behaviours and physiological processes. In urbanized bird species, light-at-night advances important biological rhythms such as daily cycles of activity/rest and timing of reproduction, but our knowledge of the underlying physiological mechanisms is limited. Given its role as chronobiological signal, melatonin is a strong candidate for mediating the effects of light-at-night. RESULTS: We exposed urban and rural European blackbirds (Turdus merula) to two light treatments equal in photoperiod but with different light intensities at night. The control group was exposed to 0.0001 lux (almost darkness), while the experimental group was exposed to 0.3 lux at night, simulating conditions recorded previously on free-living urban blackbirds. We obtained diel profiles of plasma melatonin for all birds in summer (July) and winter (January), while simultaneously recording locomotor activity. Daily patterns of melatonin concentrations were clearly affected by light-at-night in both seasons. In winter, melatonin concentrations of light-at-night birds were lower in the early and late night than in those of birds kept in darkness. In summer, melatonin concentrations of the light-at-night birds were lower through all night compared to birds kept in darkness. Locomotor activity in light-at-night birds was overall higher than in control individuals, both during the day and at night, and it increased sharply before dawn. In winter, the amount of activity before dawn in the light-at-night group correlated with changes in melatonin from midnight to late night: the greater the decrease in melatonin, the greater the amount of pre-dawn activity. Urban and rural birds responded similarly to light-at-night with respect to melatonin, but differed in their behaviour, with rural birds showing more locomotor activity than urban counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: This study points to reduced melatonin release at night as a potential physiological mechanism underlying the advanced onset of morning activity of urbanized birds. Based on the pattern of melatonin secretion, we suggest that birds responded to light-at-night as if they were exposed to a longer day than birds kept under dark nights.  
  Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell, Germany. ddominoni@orn.mpg.de  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1742-9994 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24090446; PMCID:PMC3850952 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 41  
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