toggle visibility Search & Display Options

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author (up) Fuller, G. (ed) pdf  openurl
  Title The Night Shift: Lighting and Nocturnal Strepsirrhine Care in Zoos Type Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords zoos; light at night; circadian disruption; strepsirrhines; primates; lorises; pottos; lighting design  
  Abstract Over billions of years of evolution, light from the sun, moon, and stars has provided

organisms with reliable information about the passage of time. Photic cues entrain

the circadian system, allowing animals to perform behaviors critical for survival and

reproduction at optimal times. Modern artificial lighting has drastically altered

environmental light cues. Evidence is accumulating that exposure to light at night

(particularly blue wavelengths) from computer screens, urban light pollution, or as

an occupational hazard of night-shift work has major implications for human health.

Nocturnal animals are the shift workers of zoos; they are generally housed on

reversed light cycles so that daytime visitors can observe their active behaviors. As a

result, they are exposed to artificial light throughout their subjective night. The goal

of this investigation was to examine critically the care of nocturnal strepsirrhine

primates in North American zoos, focusing on lorises (Loris and Nycticebus spp.) and pottos (Perodicticus potto). The general hypothesis was that exhibit lighting design affects activity patterns and circadian physiology in nocturnal strepsirrhines. The

first specific aim was to assess the status of these populations. A multi-institutional husbandry survey revealed little consensus among zoos in lighting design, with both red and blue light commonly used for nocturnal illumination. A review of medical records also revealed high rates of neonate mortality. The second aim was to

develop methods for measuring the effects of exhibit lighting on behavior and

health. The use of actigraphy for automated activity monitoring was explored.

Methods were also developed for measuring salivary melatonin and cortisol as

indicators of circadian disruption. Finally, a multi-institutional study was conducted

comparing behavioral and endocrine responses to red and blue dark phase lighting.

These results showed greater activity levels in strepsirrhines housed under red light than blue. Salivary melatonin concentrations in pottos suggested that blue light

suppressed nocturnal melatonin production at higher intensities, but evidence for

circadian disruption was equivocal. These results add to the growing body of

evidence on the detrimental effects of blue light at night and are a step towards

empirical recommendations for nocturnal lighting design in zoos.
 
  Address Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Fuller, G.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 327  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Gallaway, T.; Olsen, R.N.; Mitchell, D.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Blinded by the Light: Economic Analysis of Severe Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Economic Insight Abbreviated Journal J Econ Insight  
  Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 45-63  
  Keywords Economics; light pollution  
  Abstract This paper examines severe light pollution such as commonly found in large urban areas. Light pollution is the unintended negative consequences of poorly designed and injudiciously used artificial lighting. Light pollution generates significant costs including wasted energy and damage to human health, wildlife, recreation, and the beauty of the night sky. Typically, light-pollution models emphasize population density and ignore economic factors. Economic analysis of the issue has been singularly limited. Previous economic research has focused on widespread, but very low levels of light pollution. This paper makes a unique contribution by analyzing economic factors of severe light pollution. The paper utilizes economic data from the World Bank and unique remote sensing data for 184 countries to quantify the economic causes of severe light pollution. Fractional logit models confirm the importance of population and economic factors alike.  
  Address Department of Economics, Missouri State University; TerrelGallaway(at)missouristate.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Missouri Valley Economic Association Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0361-6576 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2338  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sustainability: A green light for efficiency Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 497 Issue 7451 Pages 560-561  
  Keywords Editorial; Animals; Atmosphere/chemistry; Carbon Dioxide/analysis; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Conservation of Energy Resources/economics/*methods/*trends; Global Warming/prevention & control; Humans; Lighting/*economics/instrumentation/statistics & numerical data/*trends; Public Health  
  Abstract  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK. k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23719447 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 459  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Gaston, K.J.; Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Hopkins, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution: a mechanistic appraisal Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc  
  Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 912-927  
  Keywords dark; information; light; moonlight; night; pollution; resources; rhythms; time  
  Abstract The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution have been a longstanding source of concern, accentuated by realized and projected growth in electrical lighting. As human communities and lighting technologies develop, artificial light increasingly modifies natural light regimes by encroaching on dark refuges in space, in time, and across wavelengths. A wide variety of ecological implications of artificial light have been identified. However, the primary research to date is largely focused on the disruptive influence of nighttime light on higher vertebrates, and while comprehensive reviews have been compiled along taxonomic lines and within specific research domains, the subject is in need of synthesis within a common mechanistic framework. Here we propose such a framework that focuses on the cross-factoring of the ways in which artificial lighting alters natural light regimes (spatially, temporally, and spectrally), and the ways in which light influences biological systems, particularly the distinction between light as a resource and light as an information source. We review the evidence for each of the combinations of this cross-factoring. As artificial lighting alters natural patterns of light in space, time and across wavelengths, natural patterns of resource use and information flows may be disrupted, with downstream effects to the structure and function of ecosystems. This review highlights: (i) the potential influence of nighttime lighting at all levels of biological organisation (from cell to ecosystem); (ii) the significant impact that even low levels of nighttime light pollution can have; and (iii) the existence of major research gaps, particularly in terms of the impacts of light at population and ecosystem levels, identification of intensity thresholds, and the spatial extent of impacts in the vicinity of artificial lights.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, U.K  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3231 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23565807 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 14  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Ge, A.; Du, Z.; Wang, W.; Qiu, P.; Wang, J.; Cai, J.; Song, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A composite optical system for a LED based headlamp low beam module Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 45 Issue 6 Pages 752-757  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract In this paper, we propose a composite optical system for automotive headlamps. The system is composed of a paraboloid collimating reflector, an off-axis paraboloid reflector, a baffle and an imaging len. By using a LED as the light source, precise light distribution can be achieved. When making ray-tracing simulation for the composite optical system in TracePro, a clear cut-off line can be seen on the measuring screen, as well as a hotspot at the centre. The power consumption for the LED light sources in this system is less than 10 W, resulting in an energy efficiency of more than 58% and a maximum illumination of 26.76 lux at the centre hotspot.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 632  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations:
Export Records: