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Author (up) Hale, J.D.; Davies, G.; Fairbrass, A.J.; Matthews, T.J.; Rogers, C.D.F.; Sadler, J.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping lightscapes: spatial patterning of artificial lighting in an urban landscape Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages e61460  
  Keywords *Cities; England; Environmental Pollution; Geographic Mapping; Humans; Light; *Lighting; Photography; Urban Population; *Urbanization  
  Abstract Artificial lighting is strongly associated with urbanisation and is increasing in its extent, brightness and spectral range. Changes in urban lighting have both positive and negative effects on city performance, yet little is known about how its character and magnitude vary across the urban landscape. A major barrier to related research, planning and governance has been the lack of lighting data at the city extent, particularly at a fine spatial resolution. Our aims were therefore to capture such data using aerial night photography and to undertake a case study of urban lighting. We present the finest scale multi-spectral lighting dataset available for an entire city and explore how lighting metrics vary with built density and land-use. We found positive relationships between artificial lighting indicators and built density at coarse spatial scales, whilst at a local level lighting varied with land-use. Manufacturing and housing are the primary land-use zones responsible for the city's brightly lit areas, yet manufacturing sites are relatively rare within the city. Our data suggests that efforts to address light pollution should broaden their focus from residential street lighting to include security lighting within manufacturing areas.  
  Address School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, West Midlands, United Kingdom. j.hale@bham.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23671566; PMCID:PMC3646000 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 209  
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Author (up) Haus, E.L.; Smolensky, M.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Sleep Medicine Reviews Abbreviated Journal Sleep Med Rev  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 273-284  
  Keywords Cell Cycle/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Epigenesis, Genetic/physiology; Humans; Light; Melatonin/physiology; Neoplasms/*etiology; Risk Factors; Sleep Deprivation/*complications; Work Schedule Tolerance/*physiology; oncogenesis  
  Abstract Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species.  
  Address Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathology, University of Minnesota and Health Partners Medical Group, Regions Hospital, 640 Jackson Street, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101, USA. Erhard.X.Haus@HealthPartners.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1087-0792 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23137527 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 157  
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Author (up) Held, M.; Hölker, F.; Jessel, B. openurl 
  Title Schutz der Nacht – Lichtverschmutzung, Biodiversität und Nachtlandschaft. Type Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication BfN-Skripten Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 336 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Ecology  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 681  
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Author (up) Hsu, F.-C.; Elvidge, C.D.; Matsuno, Y. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exploring and estimating in-use steel stocks in civil engineering and buildings from night-time lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing  
  Volume 34 Issue 2 Pages 490-504  
  Keywords architecture; engineering; light at night  
  Abstract Steel is the most widely used metal in the world, and numerous studies have investigated its stock and flow. Two basic methods for analysing material flow and accounting for stock are the top-down and bottom-up approaches. Their applicability, however, largely depends on data availability. To overcome this limitation, we have contemplated using satellite imagery as a proxy for missing data. In a previous study, we confirmed the correlation between night-time light radiance and civil engineering/building in-use steel stocks in Japan. In this study, the scope of the investigation was expanded to a global scale, examining correlations in different regions of the world. We found that night-time light radiance and in-use steel stocks have region-specific linear correlations, which are influenced by construction styles, which in turn depend on climate, seismic activity, cultural preferences, etc. The results were then applied to countries in the various regions whose in-use steel stocks were previously unreported. This technique produced an estimate of the global civil engineering/building in-use steel stock of around 9 × 109 tonnes (9 Gt), with 1.24 Gt being previously unreported. As a further step, this study shows the spatial distribution of civil engineering/building in-use steel stock in each region.  
  Address Department of Materials Engineering , Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo , Tokyo , 113-8656 , Japan  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 210  
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Author (up) Hurley, S.; Nelson, D.O.; Garcia, E.; Gunier, R.; Hertz, A.; Reynolds, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A cross-sectional analysis of light at night, neighborhood sociodemographics and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations: implications for the conduct of health studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Health Geographics Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Geogr  
  Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 39  
  Keywords circadian disruption; 6-sulftoxymelatonin; melatonin; aMT6s, DMSP; light at night  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that circadian disruption, mediated by alterations in melatonin levels, may play an etiologic role in a wide variety of diseases. The degree to which light-at-night (LAN) and other factors can alter melatonin levels is not well-documented. Our primary objective was to evaluate the degree to which estimates of outdoor environmental LAN predict 6-sulftoxymelatonin (aMT6s), the primary urinary metabolite of melatonin. We also evaluated other potential behavioral, sociodemographic, and anthropomorphic predictors of aMT6s. METHODS: Study participants consisted of 303 members of the California Teachers Study who provided a 24-hour urine specimen and completed a self-administered questionnaire in 2000. Urinary aMT6s was measured using the Buhlmann ELISA. Outdoor LAN levels were estimated from satellite imagery data obtained from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) Operational Linescan System and assigned to study participants' geocoded residential address. Information on other potential predictors of aMT6s was derived from self-administered surveys. Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) was based on U.S. Census block group data. RESULTS: Lower aMT6s levels were significantly associated with older age, shorter nights, and residential locations in lower SES neighborhoods. Outdoor sources of LAN estimated using low-dynamic range DMSP data had insufficient variability across urban neighborhoods to evaluate. While high-dynamic range DMSP offered much better variability, it was not significantly associated with urinary aMT6s. CONCLUSIONS: Future health studies should utilize the high-dynamic range DMSP data and should consider other potential sources of circadian disruption associated with living in lower SES neighborhoods.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1476-072X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24127816; PMCID:PMC3766028 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 142  
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