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Author (up) Brainard, G.C.; Coyle, W.; Ayers, M.; Kemp, J.; Warfield, B.; Maida, J.; Bowen, C.; Bernecker, C.; Lockley, S.W.; Hanifin, J.P.
Title Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: Tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Acta Astronautica Abbreviated Journal Acta Astronautica
Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 21-28
Keywords Human Health; Lighting
Abstract The International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. Solid-state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are attractive candidates for replacing the GLAs on the ISS. The advantages of LEDs over conventional fluorescent light sources include lower up-mass, power consumption and heat generation, as well as fewer toxic materials, greater resistance to damage and long lamp life. A prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) was developed and successfully installed on the ISS. The broad aim of the ongoing work is to test light emitted by prototype SSLAs for supporting astronaut vision and assessing neuroendocrine, circadian, neurobehavioral and sleep effects. Three completed ground-based studies are presented here including experiments on visual performance, color discrimination, and acute plasma melatonin suppression in cohorts of healthy, human subjects under different SSLA light exposure conditions within a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Quarters (CQ). All visual tests were done under indirect daylight at 201 lx, fluorescent room light at 531 lx and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ at 1266 lx. Visual performance was assessed with numerical verification tests (NVT). NVT data show that there are no significant differences in score (F=0.73, p=0.48) or time (F=0.14, p=0.87) for subjects performing five contrast tests (10%–100%). Color discrimination was assessed with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue tests (FM-100). The FM-100 data showed no significant differences (F=0.01, p=0.99) in color discrimination for indirect daylight, fluorescent room light and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ. Plasma melatonin suppression data show that there are significant differences (F=29.61, p<0.0001) across the percent change scores of plasma melatonin for five corneal irradiances, ranging from 0 to 405 &#956;W/cm2 of 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ (0–1270 lx). Risk factors for the health and safety of astronauts include disturbed circadian rhythms and altered sleep–wake patterns. These studies will help determine if SSLA lighting can be used both to support astronaut vision and serve as an in-flight countermeasure for circadian desynchrony, sleep disruption and cognitive performance deficits on the ISS.
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ISSN 0094-5765 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1533
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Author (up) Brüning, A.; Hölker, F.
Title Lichtverschmutzung und die Folgen für Fische. Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication In: Held, M., Hölker, F. & Jessel, B (2013) Schutz der Nacht – Lichtverschmutzung, Biodiversität und Nachtlandschaft. – BfN-Skripten Abbreviated Journal
Volume 336 Issue Pages 69-72
Keywords Animals
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 688
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Author (up) Bukalev, A.V.; Vinogradova, I.A.; Zabezhinskii, M.A.; Semenchenko, A.V.; Anisimov, V.N.
Title Light pollution increases morbidity and mortality rate from different causes in female rats Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Advances in Gerontology Abbreviated Journal Adv Gerontol
Volume 3 Issue 3 Pages 180-188
Keywords light-at-night; spontaneous tumors; nontumor pathology epiphysis; rats; animals; mammals
Abstract The influence of different light regimes (constant light, LL; constant darkness, DD; standard light regime, LD, 12 hours light/12 hours darkness; and natural lighting of the northwest of Russia (NL) on non-tumor pathology revealed in the post-mortem examination of female rats has been studied. It was found that keeping 25-days-old animals under LL and NL conditions led to an increase in the number of infectious diseases and the substantially faster development of spontaneous tumors (2.9 and 3.3 diseases per one rat, respectively), variety of nontumor pathology found in dead rats, compared with the animals in standard (standard light) regime (1.72 diseases per one rat). Light deprivation (DD) led to a substantial reduction in the development of new growth, as well as nontumor and infectious diseases (1.06 diseases per one rat), compared to the same parameters in a standard light regime.
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ISSN 2079-0570 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 89
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Author (up) Bullough, J.D.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S.
Title To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 53 Issue Pages 65-77
Keywords Lighting; Accident Prevention/*methods; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Minnesota; Models, Statistical; Photoperiod; Psychomotor Performance; Regression Analysis; Safety/statistics & numerical data; Visual Perception
Abstract A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA
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ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23377085 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 627
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Author (up) Cajochen, C.; Altanay-Ekici, S.; Munch, M.; Frey, S.; Knoblauch, V.; Wirz-Justice, A.
Title Evidence that the lunar cycle influences human sleep Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 23 Issue 15 Pages 1485-1488
Keywords Adult; Aged; Cross-Sectional Studies; Electroencephalography; Female; Humans; Hydrocortisone/analysis/metabolism; Male; Melatonin/analysis/metabolism; Middle Aged; Moon; Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation; Periodicity; Saliva/metabolism; Sleep/*physiology; Sleep Stages/physiology; Young Adult
Abstract Endogenous rhythms of circalunar periodicity ( approximately 29.5 days) and their underlying molecular and genetic basis have been demonstrated in a number of marine species [1, 2]. In contrast, there is a great deal of folklore but no consistent association of moon cycles with human physiology and behavior [3]. Here we show that subjective and objective measures of sleep vary according to lunar phase and thus may reflect circalunar rhythmicity in humans. To exclude confounders such as increased light at night or the potential bias in perception regarding a lunar influence on sleep, we retrospectively analyzed sleep structure, electroencephalographic activity during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, and secretion of the hormones melatonin and cortisol found under stringently controlled laboratory conditions in a cross-sectional setting. At no point during and after the study were volunteers or investigators aware of the a posteriori analysis relative to lunar phase. We found that around full moon, electroencephalogram (EEG) delta activity during NREM sleep, an indicator of deep sleep, decreased by 30%, time to fall asleep increased by 5 min, and EEG-assessed total sleep duration was reduced by 20 min. These changes were associated with a decrease in subjective sleep quality and diminished endogenous melatonin levels. This is the first reliable evidence that a lunar rhythm can modulate sleep structure in humans when measured under the highly controlled conditions of a circadian laboratory study protocol without time cues.
Address Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, 4012 Basel, Switzerland. christian.cajochen@upkbs.ch
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ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23891110 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 140
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