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Author Stokkan, K.-A.; Folkow, L.; Dukes, J.; Neveu, M.; Hogg, C.; Siefken, S.; Dakin, S.C.; Jeffery, G.
Title Shifting mirrors: adaptive changes in retinal reflections to winter darkness in Arctic reindeer Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci
Volume 280 Issue 1773 Pages 20132451
Keywords Animals; Skyglow
Abstract Arctic reindeer experience extreme changes in environmental light from continuous summer daylight to continuous winter darkness. Here, we show that they may have a unique mechanism to cope with winter darkness by changing the wavelength reflection from their tapetum lucidum (TL). In summer, it is golden with most light reflected back directly through the retina, whereas in winter it is deep blue with less light reflected out of the eye. The blue reflection in winter is associated with significantly increased retinal sensitivity compared with summer animals. The wavelength of reflection depends on TL collagen spacing, with reduced spacing resulting in shorter wavelengths, which we confirmed in summer and winter animals. Winter animals have significantly increased intra-ocular pressure, probably produced by permanent pupil dilation blocking ocular drainage. This may explain the collagen compression. The resulting shift to a blue reflection may scatter light through photoreceptors rather than directly reflecting it, resulting in elevated retinal sensitivity via increased photon capture. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of a retinal structural adaptation to seasonal changes in environmental light. Increased sensitivity occurs at the cost of reduced acuity, but may be an important adaptation in reindeer to detect moving predators in the dark Arctic winter.
Address Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromso, , Tromso, Norway, Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, , 11-43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK, Moorfields Eye Hospital, , London, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24174115; PMCID:PMC3826237 Approved no
Call Number (down) LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1636
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Author Forbes, C.; Hammill, E.
Title Fear in the dark? Community-level effects of non-lethal predators change with light regime Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Oikos Abbreviated Journal Oikos
Volume 122 Issue 12 Pages 1662-1668
Keywords Animals
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0030-1299 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number (down) LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 597
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Author Nimkingrat, P.; Khanam, S.; Strauch, O.; Ehlers, R.-U.
Title Hybridisation and selective breeding for improvement of low temperature activity of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication BioControl Abbreviated Journal BioControl
Volume 58 Issue 3 Pages 417-426
Keywords Animals
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1386-6141 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number (down) LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 611
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Author Taylor, P.; Nimkingrat, P.; Strauch, O.; Ehlers, R.; Kiel, C.
Title Biocontrol Science and Technology Hybridisation and genetic selection for improving desiccation tolerance of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 37–41
Keywords Animals
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number (down) LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 622
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Author Bullough, J.D.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S.
Title To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 53 Issue Pages 65-77
Keywords Lighting; Accident Prevention/*methods; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Minnesota; Models, Statistical; Photoperiod; Psychomotor Performance; Regression Analysis; Safety/statistics & numerical data; Visual Perception
Abstract A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23377085 Approved no
Call Number (down) LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 627
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