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Author Li, X.; Chen, F.; Chen, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Satellite-Observed Nighttime Light Variation as Evidence for Global Armed Conflicts Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observations Remote Sensing  
  Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 2302-2315  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Society  
  Abstract The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of nighttime light images, acquired with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS), in evaluating global armed conflicts. To achieve this purpose, we assessed the relationship between armed conflicts and the satellite-observed nighttime light variation over 159 countries through annual composites of the nighttime light images. Firstly, a light ratio index was developed to reduce the data inconsistency of annual nighttime light images during 1992-2010. Then 12 countries were selected as examples for a primary investigation, and we found the outbreak of a war can reduce the light and the ceasefire can increase the light from the remote sensing images, which indicates armed conflict events always have significant impact on the nighttime light. Based on this assertion, a nighttime light variation index (NLVI) was developed to quantify the variation of the time series nighttime light. Then using conditional probability analysis, the probability of a country suffering from armed conflicts increases with increase of NLVI. Particularly, when the NLVI value is in a very high level as defined, 80% of the countries have experienced armed conflicts. Furthermore, using correlation analysis, the number of global armed conflicts is highly correlated with the global NLVI in temporal dimension, with a correlation coefficient larger than 0.77. In summary, the potential of nighttime light images in armed conflict evaluation is extended from a regional scale to a global scale by this study.  
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  ISSN 1939-1404 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1876  
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Author Nickla, D.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ocular diurnal rhythms and eye growth regulation: where we are 50 years after Lauber Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Experimental eye Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Eye Res  
  Volume 114 Issue Pages 25-34  
  Keywords Vision; Human Health; Review  
  Abstract Many ocular processes show diurnal oscillations that optimize retinal function under the different conditions of ambient illumination encountered over the course of the 24 h light/dark cycle. Abolishing the diurnal cues by the use of constant darkness or constant light results in excessive ocular elongation, corneal flattening, and attendant refractive errors. A prevailing hypothesis is that the absence of the Zeitgeber of light and dark alters ocular circadian rhythms in some manner, and results in an inability of the eye to regulate its growth in order to achieve emmetropia, the matching of the front optics to eye length. Another visual manipulation that results in the eye growth system going into a “default” mode of excessive growth is form deprivation, in which a translucent diffuser deprives the eye of visual transients (spatial or temporal) while not significantly reducing light levels; these eyes rapidly elongate and become myopic. It has been hypothesized that form deprivation might constitute a type of “constant condition” whereby the absence of visual transients drives the eye into a similar default mode as that in response to constant light or dark. Interest in the potential influence of light cycles and ambient lighting in human myopia development has been spurred by a recent study showing a positive association between the amount of time that children spent outdoors and a reduced prevalence of myopia. The growing eyes of chickens and monkeys show a diurnal rhythm in axial length: Eyes elongate more during the day than during the night. There is also a rhythm in choroidal thickness that is in approximate anti-phase to the rhythm in eye length. The phases are altered in eyes growing too fast, in response to form deprivation or negative lenses, or too slowly, in response to myopic defocus, suggesting an influence of phase on the emmetropization system. Other potential rhythmic influences include dopamine and melatonin, which form a reciprocal feedback loop, and signal “day” and “night” respectively. Retinal dopamine is reduced during the day in form deprived myopic eyes, and dopamine D2 agonists inhibit ocular growth in animal models. Rhythms in intraocular pressure as well, may influence eye growth, perhaps as a mechanical stimulus triggering changes in scleral extracellular matrix synthesis. Finally, evidence shows varying influences of environmental lighting parameters on the emmetropization system, such as high intensity light being protective against myopia in chickens. This review will cover the evidence for the possible influence of these various factors on ocular growth. The recognition that ocular rhythms may play a role in emmetropization is a first step toward understanding how they may be manipulated in treatment therapies to prevent myopia in humans.  
  Address New England College of Optometry, Department of Biosciences, 424 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA. nicklad@neco.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0014-4835 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23298452; PMCID:PMC3742730 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1987  
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Author Cao, C.; Shao, X.; Uprety, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Detecting Light Outages After Severe Storms Using the S-NPP/VIIRS Day/Night Band Radiances Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters Abbreviated Journal IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett.  
  Volume 10 Issue 6 Pages 1582-1586  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Power outages after a major storm affect the lives of millions of people and cause massive light outages. The launch of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) significantly enhances our capability to monitor and detect light outages with the well-calibrated day/night band (DNB) and to use light loss signatures as indication of regional power outages. This study explores the use of the DNB in quantifying light outages due to the derecho storm in the Washington DC metropolitan area in June 2012 and Hurricane Sandy at the end of October 2012 on the East Coast of U.S. The results show that the DNB data are very useful in detecting power outages by quantifying light loss, but it also has some challenges due to clouds, lunar illumination, and straylight effect. Comparison of light outage and recovery trend determined from DNB data with power company survey shows reasonable agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of DNB in independently verifying and complementing the statistics from power companies.  
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  ISSN 1545-598X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2040  
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Author Chellappa, S.L.; Steiner, R.; Oelhafen, P.; Lang, D.; Gotz, T.; Krebs, J.; Cajochen, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Acute exposure to evening blue-enriched light impacts on human sleep Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Sleep Research Abbreviated Journal J Sleep Res  
  Volume 22 Issue 5 Pages 573-580  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Light in the short wavelength range (blue light: 446-483 nm) elicits direct effects on human melatonin secretion, alertness and cognitive performance via non-image-forming photoreceptors. However, the impact of blue-enriched polychromatic light on human sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalographic activity remains fairly unknown. In this study we investigated sleep structure and sleep electroencephalographic characteristics of 30 healthy young participants (16 men, 14 women; age range 20-31 years) following 2 h of evening light exposure to polychromatic light at 6500 K, 2500 K and 3000 K. Sleep structure across the first three non-rapid eye movement non-rapid eye movement – rapid eye movement sleep cycles did not differ significantly with respect to the light conditions. All-night non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalographic power density indicated that exposure to light at 6500 K resulted in a tendency for less frontal non-rapid eye movement electroencephalographic power density, compared to light at 2500 K and 3000 K. The dynamics of non-rapid eye movement electroencephalographic slow wave activity (2.0-4.0 Hz), a functional index of homeostatic sleep pressure, were such that slow wave activity was reduced significantly during the first sleep cycle after light at 6500 K compared to light at 2500 K and 3000 K, particularly in the frontal derivation. Our data suggest that exposure to blue-enriched polychromatic light at relatively low room light levels impacts upon homeostatic sleep regulation, as indexed by reduction in frontal slow wave activity during the first non-rapid eye movement episode.  
  Address Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Cyclotron Research Center, University of Liege, Liege, Belgium  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-1105 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23509952 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2201  
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Author Tuttle, B. T., Anderson, S. J., Sutton, P. C., Elvidge, C. D., & Baugh, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title It Used To Be Dark Here Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 3 Issue 11 Pages 287-297  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Nighttime satellite imagery from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has a unique capability to observe nocturnal light emissions from sources including cities, wild fires, and gas flares. Data from the DMSP OLS is used in a wide range of studies including mapping urban areas, estimating informal economies, and estimations of population. Given the extensive and increasing list of applications a repeatable method for assessing geolocation accuracy would be beneficial. An array of portable lights was designed and taken to multiple field sites known to have no other light sources. The lights were operated during nighttime overpasses by the DMSP OLS and observed in the imagery. An assessment of the geolocation accuracy was performed by measuring the distance between the GPS measured location of the lights and the observed location in the imagery. A systematic shift was observed and the mean distance was measured at 2.9 km.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) IDA @ intern @ Serial 2520  
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Author Gaston, K.J.; Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Hopkins, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution: a mechanistic appraisal Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc  
  Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages 912-927  
  Keywords dark; information; light; moonlight; night; pollution; resources; rhythms; time  
  Abstract The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution have been a longstanding source of concern, accentuated by realized and projected growth in electrical lighting. As human communities and lighting technologies develop, artificial light increasingly modifies natural light regimes by encroaching on dark refuges in space, in time, and across wavelengths. A wide variety of ecological implications of artificial light have been identified. However, the primary research to date is largely focused on the disruptive influence of nighttime light on higher vertebrates, and while comprehensive reviews have been compiled along taxonomic lines and within specific research domains, the subject is in need of synthesis within a common mechanistic framework. Here we propose such a framework that focuses on the cross-factoring of the ways in which artificial lighting alters natural light regimes (spatially, temporally, and spectrally), and the ways in which light influences biological systems, particularly the distinction between light as a resource and light as an information source. We review the evidence for each of the combinations of this cross-factoring. As artificial lighting alters natural patterns of light in space, time and across wavelengths, natural patterns of resource use and information flows may be disrupted, with downstream effects to the structure and function of ecosystems. This review highlights: (i) the potential influence of nighttime lighting at all levels of biological organisation (from cell to ecosystem); (ii) the significant impact that even low levels of nighttime light pollution can have; and (iii) the existence of major research gaps, particularly in terms of the impacts of light at population and ecosystem levels, identification of intensity thresholds, and the spatial extent of impacts in the vicinity of artificial lights.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, U.K  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3231 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23565807 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) IDA @ john @ Serial 14  
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Wagner, J.M.; Kuechly, H.U.; Walker, C.E.; Elvidge, C.D.; Falchi, F.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Citizen science provides valuable data for monitoring global night sky luminance Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages 1835  
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  Abstract The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the “First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness” are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate.  
  Address Institute for Space Sciences, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany. christopher.kyba@wew.fu-berlin.de  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23677222; PMCID:PMC3655480 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) IDA @ john @ Serial 13  
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Author Bedrosian, T.A.; Vaughn, C.A.; Galan, A.; Daye, G.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nocturnal light exposure impairs affective responses in a wavelength-dependent manner Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Neurosci  
  Volume 33 Issue 32 Pages 13081-13087  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Female; Food Deprivation/physiology; Food Preferences/physiology/radiation effects; Fourier Analysis; Gene Expression Regulation/radiation effects; Hippocampus/pathology/radiation effects; Immobility Response, Tonic/radiation effects; Light/*adverse effects; Mood Disorders/*etiology/pathology; Motor Activity/physiology/radiation effects; Phodopus; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism; Social Behavior; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism; Time Factors  
  Abstract Life on earth is entrained to a 24 h solar cycle that synchronizes circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior; light is the most potent entraining cue. In mammals, light is detected by (1) rods and cones, which mediate visual function, and (2) intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which primarily project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus to regulate circadian rhythms. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates that ipRGCs also project to limbic brain regions, suggesting that, through this pathway, light may have a role in cognition and mood. Therefore, it follows that unnatural exposure to light may have negative consequences for mood or behavior. Modern environmental lighting conditions have led to excessive exposure to light at night (LAN), and particularly to blue wavelength lights. We hypothesized that nocturnal light exposure (i.e., dim LAN) would induce depressive responses and alter neuronal structure in hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). If this effect is mediated by ipRGCs, which have reduced sensitivity to red wavelength light, then we predicted that red LAN would have limited effects on brain and behavior compared with shorter wavelengths. Additionally, red LAN would not induce c-Fos activation in the SCN. Our results demonstrate that exposure to LAN influences behavior and neuronal plasticity and that this effect is likely mediated by ipRGCs. Modern sources of LAN that contain blue wavelengths may be particularly disruptive to the circadian system, potentially contributing to altered mood regulation.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. Bedrosian.2@osu.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0270-6474 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23926261 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) IDA @ john @ Serial 27  
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Aubrecht, T.G.; Melendez-Fernandez, O.H.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 28 Issue 4 Pages 262-271  
  Keywords Animals; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Body Weight/*physiology; CLOCK Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Corticosterone/metabolism; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Immunohistochemistry; Light; *Lighting; Male; Mice; Motor Activity; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism/physiology; clock genes; feeding rhythm; light pollution; obesity  
  Abstract With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience and Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23929553; PMCID:PMC4033305 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) IDA @ john @ Serial 28  
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Author Kronfeld-Schor, N.; Dominoni, D.; de la Iglesia, H.; Levy, O.; Herzog, E.D.; Dayan, T.; Helfrich-Forster, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Chronobiology by moonlight Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 280 Issue 1765 Pages 20123088  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Feeding Behavior/*physiology; Invertebrates/*physiology; *Light; *Moon; Predatory Behavior/physiology; Reproduction/physiology; Vertebrates/physiology; communication; foraging; light pollution; lunar cycle; predation; reproduction  
  Abstract Most studies in chronobiology focus on solar cycles (daily and annual). Moonlight and the lunar cycle received considerably less attention by chronobiologists. An exception are rhythms in intertidal species. Terrestrial ecologists long ago acknowledged the effects of moonlight on predation success, and consequently on predation risk, foraging behaviour and habitat use, while marine biologists have focused more on the behaviour and mainly on reproduction synchronization with relation to the Moon phase. Lately, several studies in different animal taxa addressed the role of moonlight in determining activity and studied the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we review the ecological and behavioural evidence showing the effect of moonlight on activity, discuss the adaptive value of these changes, and describe possible mechanisms underlying this effect. We will also refer to other sources of night-time light ('light pollution') and highlight open questions that demand further studies.  
  Address Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel. nogaks@tauex.tau.ac.il  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23825199; PMCID:PMC3712431 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) IDA @ john @ Serial 29  
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