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Author Smith, S.D.P.; McIntyre, P.B.; Halpern, B.S.; Cooke, R.M.; Marino, A.L.; Boyer, G.L.; Buchsbaum, A.; Burton, J., G. Allen; Campbell, L.M.; Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Doran, P.J.; Infante, D.M.; Johnson, L.B.; Read, J.G.; Rose, J.B.; Rutherford, E.S.; Steinman, A.D.; Allan, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Ecological Applications Abbreviated Journal Ecological Applications  
  Volume Issue Pages 140915094202006  
  Keywords Great Lakes; limnology; light pollution; environment; stressor; ecology  
  Abstract Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in relative impact can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors to have some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.  
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  ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 372  
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Author Mace, B.L.; McDaniel, J. url  openurl
  Title Visitor Evaluation of Night Sky Interpretation in Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Interpretation Research Abbreviated Journal J. of Interp. Res.  
  Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 39-57  
  Keywords parks; interpretation; social studies; Bryce Canyon National Park; Cedar Breaks National Monument; dark skies  
  Abstract Natural lightscapes are an important resource for parks and protected areas, including Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument. Both locations offer night sky interpretive programs, attracting over 27,000 visitors annually, equaling all other interpretive programs combined. Parks need to understand what drives visitor interest and park managers need to assess if night sky interpretation is meeting expectations. A total of 1,179 night and day visitors to Bryce Canyon National Park and Cedar Breaks National Monument served as participants and completed a 36-item survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, benefits, and behaviors related to the night sky. Results show those who attended a night sky interpretive program gained a significant amount of knowledge about night sky issues. Both day and night visitors have strongly held attitudes about light pollution and the protection of the night sky in national parks.  
  Address Department of Psychology, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, UT 84720 USA  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 374  
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Author Bolshakov, C.V.; Bulyuk, V.N.; Sinelschikova, A.Y.; Vorotkov, M.V. url  openurl
  Title Influence of the vertical light beam on numbers and flight trajectories of night-migrating songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Avian Ecol. Behav. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 24 Issue Pages 35–49  
  Keywords Animals; nocturnal migration; light pollution; numbers; flight track; extrinsic factors  
  Abstract In this paper we analyse the data obtained in the automatic regime by the Optical Electronic Device (OED, Vorotkov et al. 2009; Bolshakov et al. 2010) for autumn nocturnal passage of passerines on the Courish Spit on the Baltic Sea and estimate: (1) numbers aloft under differ- ent types of wind (following wind, opposing wind and calm conditions); (2) flight trajectories in the 5° cone of white light. We found that under natural nocturnal illumination conditions, the vertical cone of white light impacts the detectable numbers aloft and disturbs straight flight trajectories. The OED data obtained throughout the night suggest, after correction for ground speed and the mean flight altitude, the actual number of birds in the light cone peaks at calm conditions, is halved under following winds which are optimal for passage and is 21 times lower under unfavourable headwinds. It is assumed that high numbers in the light cone under calm conditions is an artefact of bird attraction by light and their concentration around the searchlights. The OED data obtained for midnight ±1 hour, flying migrants respond to the vertical light cone under all types of wind conditions by altering their straight flight trajec- tories. However, this response is most apparent in still air conditions. The proportion of birds that change their flight track reaches 43%. We assume that under such conditions some birds are not only attracted to the illuminated zone at low altitudes, but, besides slowing down their ground speed, change their trajectories to the degree of flying in circles. To determine combi- nations of factors and to test for their possible impact on the probability of response to light, we used a binary logistic regression. The presence of birds with straight vs. curved tracks was used as the dependent variable. Final logistic models obtained for midnight ±1 hour for calm conditions and headwinds, suggest that occurrence probability of songbirds with curvilinear flight tracks is higher for small birds, when no or just a small part of Moon disk is visible and under high air humidity. Under headwinds the probability of occurrence of birds flying curvi- linear tracks is also higher under overcast. For following winds, the probability of occurrence birds flying curvilinearly was higher when many small birds were aloft, when air humidity was high and when wind was not strictly following. Unlike other wind situations, this model did not include the size of visible part of the Moon disk as a significant factor. The increase of occurrence of curvilinear flight tracks through the light beam when winds were not exactly following was probably caused by the problems with compensating the lateral component of tailwinds under high velocities, especially by small birds.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 378  
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Author Le Tallec, T.; Perret, M.; Théry, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light Pollution Modifies the Expression of Daily Rhythms and Behavior Patterns in a Nocturnal Primate Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 11 Pages e79250  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core temperature were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14th night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and daily caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify daily rhythms of locomotor activity and core temperature especially through phase delays and increases in core temperature. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces daily desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 380  
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Author Nowinszky, L. url  openurl
  Title Light-trap Catch of Harmful Microlepidoptera Species in Connection with Polarized Moonlight and Collecting Distance Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 4 Issue 4 Pages 108-117  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The paper deals with light-trap catch of 25 Microlepidoptera species depending on the polarized moonlight and

collecting distance. The catching data were chosen from the 27 stations of the Hungarian National Light-trap Network and

from the years between 1959 and 1961. Relative catch values were calculated from the catching data per stations and

swarming. They are ranged and averaged in the phase angle divisions. The catching peak of ten species is in First Quarter,

another ten species have the peak in the First Quarter and Last one, and only in two cases the peak is in Last Quarter. Then

there is the maximum ratio of polarized moonlight. Catching peak of only three species is in connection with the collecting

distance when is the greatest of collection distance.

Keywords: Microlepidoptera, light-trap moon phases, polarized moonlight, catching distance.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 381  
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Author Romeo, S. et al. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bright light exposure reduces TH-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in Parkinson's disease epidemiology Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Animals; Parkinson's disease; Cell death in the nervous system; Neural ageing; Risk factors  
  Abstract This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague–Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinson's disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 382  
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Author Troy, J.R.; Holmes, N.D.; Veech, J.A.; Green, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Using observed seabird fallout records to infer patterns of attraction to artificial light Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Endangered Species Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 22 Issue 3 Pages 225-234  
  Keywords Animals; Anthropogenic light; GIS-based modeling; Hawaii; Kauai; Light attraction; Procellariiformes; Newell’s shearwater; Seabird conservation  
  Abstract Attraction of fledgling shearwaters, petrels, and storm-petrels to artificial light has been documented for decades on islands around the world and is considered a significant threat to many species. Although large numbers of downed birds have been observed after being disoriented by light, several important elements of this ‘fallout’ phenomenon are unknown, including the locations along the path from nest to ocean at which attraction and/or disorientation occurs and whether fledglings can be attracted back to land after reaching the ocean in numbers large enough to contribute significantly to fallout. To investigate these questions, we compared observed Newell’s shearwater Puffinus newelli fallout records (from 1998 to 2009) on Kauai, USA, with expected numbers generated from several hypothetical models containing basic assumptions related to fledgling movement and attraction to light. Based on our results, the spatial pattern of observed fallout is consistent with the amount of light that fledglings may view along their first flights to and beyond the coastline. This suggests that even fledglings from dark regions of the island may not be safe because they may view light after reaching the ocean and still be susceptible to attraction. These findings support recent modeling efforts predicting that most birds fledging from Kauai are likely exposed to at least some anthropogenic light. As nocturnal use of light by humans is unlikely to be eliminated, research on the types of artificial light that are both useful to humans and safe for seabirds may be crucial for the conservation of these important marine animals.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 383  
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Author Wilhelm, S.I.; Schau, J.J.; Schau, E.; Dooley, S.M.; Wiseman, D.L.; Hogan, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Atlantic Puffins are Attracted to Coastal Communities in Eastern Newfoundland Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Northeastern Naturalist Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 624-630  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The Puffin Patrol is a volunteer-based group that rescues fledgling Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin) stranded in coastal communities overlooking the Witless Bay Seabird Ecological Reserve in Newfoundland, Canada, which hosts the two largest Atlantic Puffin colonies in North America. We examine local environmental factors (visibility, moon phase) that may influence light attraction in Atlantic Puffins and explore the use of weight data and other information collected through this volunteer-based initiative to help monitor the health of this important population. In 2011, only 13 live Atlantic Puffins were captured despite nightly search efforts throughout the fledging period; this low capture rate was attributed to poor breeding success at the colony. In contrast, in 2012, 414 live fledgling puffins were captured and successfully released between 6 August and 5 September; 388 of these were banded and weighed prior to release. Capture rates on nights with poor visibility due to fog (26 fledglings per night) were similar to fogless nights (24 fledglings per night). Most live Atlantic Puffins were captured within a two-week period around the new moon. Fledglings weighed 248 ± 25 (SD) g, range = 160–315 g; weights significantly declined over the fledging period. In addition to the direct conservation benefits of saving grounded Atlantic Puffins, information collected through this volunteer-based initiative 1) provides insight on factors affecting Atlantic Puffins' attraction to coastal communities, 2) shows the importance of mitigating artificial light during the birds' fledging period within these developing communities, and 3) helps collect important demographic information without causing additional disturbance to the colonies.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 384  
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Author Bedrosian, T.A.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Chronic dim light at night provokes reversible depression-like phenotype: possible role for TNF Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Molecular Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 18 Issue Pages 930-936  
  Keywords Animals  
  Abstract The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades and women are twice as likely as men to develop the disorder. Recent environmental changes almost certainly have a role in this phenomenon, but a complete set of contributors remains unspecified. Exposure to artificial light at night (LAN) has surged in prevalence during the past 50 years, coinciding with rising rates of depression. Chronic exposure to LAN is linked to increased risk of breast cancer, obesity and mood disorders, although the relationship to mood is not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to 5 lux LAN on depression-like behaviors in female hamsters. Using this model, we also characterized hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and hippocampal dendritic morphology, and investigated the reversibility of these changes 1, 2 or 4 weeks following elimination of LAN. Furthermore, we explored the mechanism of action, focusing on hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines given their dual role in synaptic plasticity and the pathogenesis of depression. Using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, we identified a reversible increase in hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF), but not interleukin-1β, mRNA expression in hamsters exposed to LAN. Direct intracerebroventricular infusion of a dominant-negative inhibitor of soluble TNF, XPro1595, prevented the development of depression-like behavior under LAN, but had no effect on dendritic spine density in the hippocampus. These results indicate a partial role for TNF in the reversible depression-like phenotype observed under chronic dim LAN. Recent environmental changes, such as LAN exposure, may warrant more attention as possible contributors to rising rates of mood disorders.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 386  
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Author Lyytimäki, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nature's nocturnal services: Light pollution as a non-recognised challenge for ecosystem services research and management Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Ecosystem Services Abbreviated Journal Ecosystem Services  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages e44-e48  
  Keywords Economics; Ecosystem disservices; Ecosystem services; Environmental management; Light pollution; Scotoecology; Shifting baselines  
  Abstract Research focusing on ecosystem services has tackled several of the major drivers of environmental degradation, but it suffers from a blind spot related to light pollution. Light pollution caused by artificial night-time lighting is a global environmental change affecting terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. The long-term effects of the disruption of the natural cycles of light and dark on ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services are largely unknown. Even though additional research is clearly needed, identifying, developing and implementing stringent management actions aimed at reducing inadequately installed, unnecessary or excessive lighting are well justified. This essay argues that management is hampered, because ecosystem services from nocturnal nature are increasingly underappreciated by the public due to shifting baseline syndrome, making most people accustomed to constantly illuminated and light-polluted night environments. Increased attention from scientists, managers and the public is needed in order to explicate the best options for preserving the benefits from natural darkness.  
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  ISSN 2212-0416 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 433  
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