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Author Kuhn, L.; Johansson, M.; Laike, T.; Goven, T.
Title Residents' perceptions following retrofitting of residential area outdoor lighting with LEDs Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 45 Issue 5 Pages (down) 568-584
Keywords *Lighting; outdoor lighting; LED; light emitting diode; lighting levels; public opinion
Abstract The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) in outdoor lighting has energy-saving potential, but users’ responses to this light source are largely unknown. An intervention study in two residential areas compared conventional lighting installations (high pressure sodium in Area 1 and high pressure mercury in Area 2) to a retrofitted LED-alternative regarding residents’ perceptions of quality of light, visual accessibility and danger. Moreover, energy use was calculated. Residents’ (N = 60) visual accessibility improved and perceived danger remained low in both areas after retrofitting. In Area 2 the perceived quality of light increased, whereas in Area 1 the results were mixed. The retrofitted application reduced energy use by 41–76% and might be a feasible alternative to conventional outdoor lighting in relatively safe areas.
Address Environmental Psychology, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 280
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Author Gaston, K.J.
Title Sustainability: A green light for efficiency Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 497 Issue 7451 Pages (down) 560-561
Keywords Editorial; Animals; Atmosphere/chemistry; Carbon Dioxide/analysis; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Conservation of Energy Resources/economics/*methods/*trends; Global Warming/prevention & control; Humans; Lighting/*economics/instrumentation/statistics & numerical data/*trends; Public Health
Abstract
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK. k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23719447 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 459
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Author van der Burght, B.W.; Hansen, M.; Olsen, J.; Zhou, J.; Wu, Y.; Nissen, M.H.; Sparrow, J.R.
Title Early changes in gene expression induced by blue light irradiation of A2E-laden retinal pigment epithelial cells Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Acta Ophthalmologica Abbreviated Journal Acta Ophthalmol
Volume 91 Issue 7 Pages (down) e537-45
Keywords Apoptosis; Cell Line; Cell Survival; Gene Expression Regulation/*physiology; Humans; Light; Lipofuscin/genetics; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; Principal Component Analysis; Pyridinium Compounds; RNA, Messenger/genetics; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/metabolism/pathology/*radiation effects; Retinoids/*genetics; Transcriptome; A2e; age-related macular degeneration; apoptosis; complement cascade; gene expression; retinal pigment epithelial cells; blue light; retinal pigment epithelial; epigenetics
Abstract PURPOSE: Accumulation of bisretinoids as lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is implicated in the pathogenesis of some blinding diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). To identify genes whose expression may change under conditions of bisretinoid accumulation, we investigated the differential gene expression in RPE cells that had accumulated the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E and were exposed to blue light (430 nm). METHODS: A2E-laden RPE cells were exposed to blue light (A2E/430 nm) at various time intervals. Cell death was quantified using Dead Red staining, and RNA levels for the entire genome was determined using DNA microarrays (Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome 2.0 Plus). Array results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Principal component analysis revealed that the A2E-laden RPE cells irradiated with blue light were clearly distinguishable from the control samples. We found differential regulation of genes belonging to the following functional groups: transcription factors, stress response, apoptosis and immune response. Among the last mentioned were downregulation of four genes that coded for proteins that have an inhibitory effect on the complement cascade: (complement factor H, complement factor H-related 1, complement factor I and vitronectin) and of two belonging to the classical pathway (complement component 1, s subcomponent and complement component 1, r subcomponent). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that blue light irradiation of A2E-laden RPE cells can alter the transcription of genes belonging to different functional pathways including stress response, apoptosis and the immune response. We suggest that these molecules may be associated to the pathogenesis of AMD and can potentially serve as future therapeutic targets.
Address Department of International Health, Immunology and Microbiology, Eye Research Unit, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkDepartment of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkDepartment of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1755-375X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23742627 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 346
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Author Schoech, S.J.; Bowman, R.; Hahn, T.P.; Goymann, W.; Schwabl, I.; Bridge, E.S.
Title The effects of low levels of light at night upon the endocrine physiology of western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol
Volume 319 Issue 9 Pages (down) 527-538
Keywords Animals; Corticosterone/blood; Ecosystem; Female; *Light; Male; Melatonin/blood; Passeriformes/*physiology; *Photoperiod; Reproduction/*physiology; Testosterone/blood
Abstract Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) in the suburbs breed earlier than jays in native habitat. Amongst the possible factors that influence this advance (e.g., food availability, microclimate, predator regime, etc.), is exposure to artificial lights at night (LAN). LAN could stimulate the reproductive axis of the suburban jays. Alternatively, LAN could inhibit pineal melatonin (MEL), thus removing its inhibitory influence on the reproductive axis. Because Florida scrub-jays are a threatened species, we used western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) to investigate the effects of LAN upon reproductive hormones and melatonin. Jays were held under conditions in which the dark-phase of the light:dark cycle was without illumination and then under low levels of LAN. Under both conditions, birds were exposed first to short-days (9.5L:14.5D) that were gradually increased to long-days (14.5L:9.5D). At various times, blood samples were collected during the light part of the cycle to measure reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, LH; testosterone, T; and estradiol, E2 ). Similarly, samples to assess melatonin were collected during the dark. In males, LAN caused a depression in LH levels and levels were approximately 4x greater under long- than short-days. In females, there was no effect of LAN or photoperiod upon LH. LAN resulted in depressed T levels in females, although there was no effect on T in males. E2 levels in both sexes were lower under LAN than under an unlighted dark-phase. Paradoxically, MEL was higher in jays under LAN, and under long-days. MEL did not differ by sex. LAN disrupted the extraordinarily strong correlation between T and E2 that existed under unlighted nocturnal conditions. Overall, our findings fail to support the hypothesis that LAN stimulates the reproductive axis. Rather, the data demonstrate that LAN tends to inhibit reproductive hormone secretion, although not in a consistent fashion between the sexes.
Address Department of Biological Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-5223 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23970442 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 37
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Author Prugh, L.R.; Golden, C.D.
Title Does moonlight increase predation risk? Meta-analysis reveals divergent responses of nocturnal mammals to lunar cycles Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 83 Issue 2 Pages (down) 504-514
Keywords foraging efficiency; giving-up density; illumination; indirect effects; lunar cycles; moonlight; nocturnality; phylogenetic meta-analysis; predation risk; risk-sensitive foraging
Abstract The risk of predation strongly affects mammalian population dynamics and community interactions. Bright moonlight is widely believed to increase predation risk for nocturnal mammals by increasing the ability of predators to detect prey, but the potential for moonlight to increase detection of predators and the foraging efficiency of prey has largely been ignored. Studies have reported highly variable responses to moonlight among species, calling into question the assumption that moonlight increases risk. Here, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis examining the effects of moonlight on the activity of 59 nocturnal mammal species to test the assumption that moonlight increases predation risk. We examined patterns of lunarphilia and lunarphobia across species in relation to factors such as trophic level, habitat cover preference and visual acuity. Across all species included in the meta-analysis, moonlight suppressed activity. The magnitude of suppression was similar to the presence of a predator in experimental studies of foraging rodents (13.6% and 18.7% suppression, respectively). Contrary to the expectation that moonlight increases predation risk for all prey species, however, moonlight effects were not clearly related to trophic level and were better explained by phylogenetic relatedness, visual acuity and habitat cover. Moonlight increased the activity of prey species that use vision as their primary sensory system and suppressed the activity of species that primarily use other senses (e.g. olfaction, echolocation), and suppression was strongest in open habitat types. Strong taxonomic patterns underlay these relationships: moonlight tended to increase primate activity, whereas it tended to suppress the activity of rodents, lagomorphs, bats and carnivores. These results indicate that visual acuity and habitat cover jointly moderate the effect of moonlight on predation risk, whereas trophic position has little effect. While the net effect of moonlight appears to increase predation risk for most nocturnal mammals, our results highlight the importance of sensory systems and phylogenetic history in determining the level of risk.
Address Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 311 Irving 1, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24102189 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 83
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