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Author Dwyer, R.G.; Bearhop, S.; Campbell, H.A.; Bryant, D.M.
Title Shedding light on light: benefits of anthropogenic illumination to a nocturnally foraging shorebird Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol
Volume 82 Issue 2 Pages (down) 478-485
Keywords Artificial light; Dmsp/Ols; foraging strategy; moonlight; shorebirds; birds; animals; foraging; Tringa totanus; common redshank
Abstract Intertidal habitats provide important feeding areas for migratory shorebirds. Anthropogenic developments along coasts can increase ambient light levels at night across adjacent inter-tidal zones. Here, we report the effects of elevated nocturnal light levels upon the foraging strategy of a migratory shorebird (common redshank Tringa totanus) overwintering on an industrialised estuary in Northern Europe. To monitor behaviour across the full intertidal area, individuals were located by day and night using VHF transmitters, and foraging behaviour was inferred from inbuilt posture sensors. Natural light was scored using moon-phase and cloud cover information and nocturnal artificial light levels were obtained using geo-referenced DMSP/OLS night-time satellite imagery at a 1-km resolution. Under high illumination levels, the commonest and apparently preferred foraging behaviour was sight-based. Conversely, birds feeding in areas with low levels of artificial light had an elevated foraging time and fed by touch, but switched to visual rather than tactile foraging behaviour on bright moonlit nights in the absence of cloud cover. Individuals occupying areas which were illuminated continuously by lighting from a large petrochemical complex invariably exhibited a visually based foraging behaviour independently of lunar phase and cloud cover. We show that ambient light levels affect the timing and distribution of foraging opportunities for redshank. We argue that light emitted from an industrial complex improved nocturnal visibility. This allowed sight-based foraging in place of tactile foraging, implying both a preference for sight-feeding and enhanced night-time foraging opportunities under these conditions. The study highlights the value of integrating remotely sensed data and telemetry techniques to assess the effect of anthropogenic change upon nocturnal behaviour and habitat use.
Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23190422 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 44
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Author Dukic, T.; Ahlstrom, C.; Patten, C.; Kettwich, C.; Kircher, K.
Title Effects of electronic billboards on driver distraction Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev
Volume 14 Issue 5 Pages (down) 469-476
Keywords Adult; Advertising as Topic/*methods; *Attention; Automobile Driving/*psychology; Eye Movements; Humans; Middle Aged; Psychomotor Performance; Sweden; Time Factors
Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is an increase in electronic advertising billboards along major roads, which may cause driver distraction due to the highly conspicuous design of the electronic billboards. Yet limited research on the impact of electronic billboards on driving performance and driver behavior is available. The Swedish Transport Administration recently approved the installation of 12 electronic billboards for a trial period along a 3-lane motorway with heavy traffic running through central Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these electronic billboards on visual behavior and driving performance. METHOD: A total of 41 drivers were recruited to drive an instrumented vehicle passing 4 of the electronic billboards during day and night conditions. A driver was considered visually distracted when looking at a billboard continuously for more than 2 s or if the driver looked away from the road for a high percentage of time. Dependent variables were eye-tracking measures and driving performance measures. RESULTS: The visual behavior data showed that drivers had a significantly longer dwell time, a greater number of fixations, and longer maximum fixation duration when driving past an electronic billboard compared to other signs on the same road stretches. No differences were found for the factors day/night, and no effect was found for the driving behavior data. CONCLUSION: Electronic billboards have an effect on gaze behavior by attracting more and longer glances than regular traffic signs. Whether the electronic billboards attract too much attention and constitute a traffic safety hazard cannot be answered conclusively based on the present data.
Address Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden. tania.dukic@vti.se
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23682577 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 247
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Author Chamorro, E.; Bonnin-Arias, C.; Perez-Carrasco, M.J.; Munoz de Luna, J.; Vazquez, D.; Sanchez-Ramos, C.
Title Effects of light-emitting diode radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Photochemistry and Photobiology Abbreviated Journal Photochem Photobiol
Volume 89 Issue 2 Pages (down) 468-473
Keywords Human Health; Apoptosis/*radiation effects; Biological Markers/metabolism; Caspases/metabolism; Cell Survival/radiation effects; DNA Damage; Epithelial Cells/cytology/metabolism/*radiation effects; Histones/metabolism; Humans; Light; Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/*radiation effects; Mitochondria/*radiation effects; Photoperiod; Primary Cell Culture; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/cytology/metabolism/*radiation effects
Abstract Human visual system is exposed to high levels of natural and artificial lights of different spectra and intensities along lifetime. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the basic lighting components in screens of PCs, phones and TV sets; hence it is so important to know the implications of LED radiations on the human visual system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LEDs radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPEpiC). They were exposed to three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles, using blue-468 nm, green-525 nm, red-616 nm and white light. Cellular viability of HRPEpiC was evaluated by labeling all nuclei with DAPI; Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by H2DCFDA staining; mitochondrial membrane potential was quantified by TMRM staining; DNA damage was determined by H2AX histone activation, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspases-3,-7 activation. It is shown that LED radiations decrease 75-99% cellular viability, and increase 66-89% cellular apoptosis. They also increase ROS production and DNA damage. Fluorescence intensity of apoptosis was 3.7% in nonirradiated cells and 88.8%, 86.1%, 83.9% and 65.5% in cells exposed to white, blue, green or red light, respectively. This study indicates three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles of exposure to LED lighting affect in vitro HRPEpiC.
Address Neuro-Computing and Neuro-Robotics Research Group, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. eva.chamorro@opt.ucm.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0031-8655 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:22989198 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 511
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Author Sweater-Hickcox, K.; Narendran, N.; Bullough, J.; Freyssinier, J.
Title Effect of different coloured luminous surrounds on LED discomfort glare perception Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 45 Issue 4 Pages (down) 464-475
Keywords perception; subjective; LED; LED lighting; spectral power distribution; SPD
Abstract Recently, there has been increased interest in energy-efficient lighting as energy resources become higher in demand. Anecdotal evidence suggests that certain populations believe light-emitting diodes (LED) produce more glare than traditional technologies. This may be due to a number of factors such as spectral power distribution (SPD), source luminance, or beam intensity distribution. A study was conducted to assess the effect of different SPDs on the perception of discomfort glare from an LED source. For the range of conditions evaluated, the presence of any luminous surround significantly reduced the perception of discomfort glare from the LED array. The blue luminous surround reduced discomfort glare perception significantly less than the white or the yellow luminous surrounds. The implications for solid-state lighting systems are discussed.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 338
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Author Edensor, T.
Title Reconnecting with darkness: gloomy landscapes, lightless places Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Social & Cultural Geography Abbreviated Journal Social & Cultural Geography
Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages (down) 446-465
Keywords Culture; darkness; illumination; perception; sensation; landscape; space; obscurité; illumination; perception; sensation; paysage; espace; oscuridad; iluminación; percepción; sensación; paisaje; espacio
Abstract This paper investigates the effects and affects of darkness, a condition that is progressively becoming less familiar for those of us in the over-illuminated West. In countering the prevailing cultural understanding that darkness is a negative condition, I draw attention to other historical and cultural ways of positively valuing darkness. Subsequently, in drawing on two sites, a gloomy landscape at a dark sky park in South Scotland, and a tourist attraction in which a simulation of New York is experienced in a completely dark environment, I explore the multivalent qualities of darkness. In foregrounding the becoming of sensory experience in gloomy space, I highlight the mobilisation of alternative modes of visual perception in as well as the emergence of non-visual apprehensions, and suggest that the potentialities of darkness might foster progressive forms of conviviality, communication and imagination.

Cet article interroge les effets et les affects de l'obscurité, une condition qui devient de moins en moins courante pour ceux parmi nous dans l'occident sur-illuminé. Pour s'opposer à la compréhension culturelle dominante que l'obscurité est une condition négative, j'attire l'attention aux autres façons historiques et culturelles de faire valoir l'obscurité. Ensuite, en tirant de deux sites—l'un, un paysage sombre à un parc de ciel obscure dans l'Ecosse du Sud, et l'autre, une attraction touristique dans laquelleon a une expérience d'une simulation de New York dans un environnement complètement noirci—j'examine les qualités polyvalentes de l'obscurité. En mettant en premier plan l'émergence de l'expérience sensorielle dans l'espace sombre, je souligne la mobilisation des modes alternatives de la perception visuelle ainsi que l'émergence des appréhensions non-visuelles, et je suggère que les potentialités de l'obscurité puissent encourager des formes progressives de la convivialité, la communication, et l'imagination.

Este artículo explora los efectos y los afectos asociadosa la oscuridad, una condición que resulta cada vez menos familiar para aquellos de nosotros que vivimos en unOccidentehiperiluminado.A los fines de contrarrestar la perspectiva cultural predominante que le asigna a la oscuridad una valoración negativa, pretendo llamar la atención sobre otras formas históricas y culturales que le otorgan un valor positivo a la oscuridad. Luego exploro las cualidades polivalentesde la oscuridad mediante el estudio de dos sitios: el paisaje sombrío de un parque sin iluminación artificial en el sur de Escocia y una atracción turística en el que se simula la ciudad de Nueva York, experimentada en un ambiente completamente oscuro.A los fines de dar cuenta del desarrollo de experiencias sensoriales en espacios sombríos, destaco la movilización de modos alternativos de percepción visual así como también la emergencia de formas de aprehensión no visuales Además,sugiero que la oscuridad tiene el potencial para promoverformas de convivencia, comunicación e imaginación progresistas.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1464-9365 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 443
Permanent link to this record