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Author Pandey, B.; Joshi, P. K.; Seto, K. C. openurl 
  Title Monitoring urbanization dynamics in India using DMSP/OLS night time lights and SPOT-VGT data Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 23 Issue Pages (up) 49–61  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 963  
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Author Grant, R.; Halliday, T.; Chadwick, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Amphibians' response to the lunar synodic cycle--a review of current knowledge, recommendations, and implications for conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology  
  Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages (up) 53-62  
  Keywords amphibians; circular statistics; light; lunar cycle; moon phase; predator avoidance; reproductive synchronization; moonlight  
  Abstract The way in which amphibians respond to the geophysical changes brought about by the lunar synodic cycle is a neglected area of their ecology, but one which has recently generated interest. Knowledge of how amphibians respond to lunar phase is of intrinsic interest and also may be important for conservation and monitoring of populations. We surveyed the literature on amphibians’ responses to the lunar cycle and found 79 examples where moon phase in relation to amphibian behavior and ecology had been studied, across diverse amphibian taxa. Of the examples reviewed, most of them show some type of response to lunar phase, with only a few species being unaffected. We found that there is no significant difference between the numbers of species which increase, and those that decrease activity or reproductive behavior (including calling) during a full moon. The responses to the lunar cycle can not be generalized across taxonomic group, but instead are highly species specific and relate directly to the species’ ecology. The primary reasons for changes in amphibian behavior in response to the lunar cycle appear to be temporal synchronization of breeding and predator avoidance. Responses to changes in prey availability, facilitation of visual signalling and use of lunar cues in navigation and homing are less prevalent but merit further investigation. Comparisons between studies are hampered by differences in field and analytical methods; we therefore make a number of recommendations for future collection and analysis of data related to lunar phase.  
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  ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 81  
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Author Marquenie, J.M.; Donners, M.; Poot, H.; Steckel W.; de Witt, B. url  doi
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  Title Bird-Friendly Light Sources: Adapting the Spectral Composition of Artificial Lighting Type Magazine Article
  Year 2013 Publication IEEE Industry Application Magazine Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (up) 56-62  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1088  
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Author Upham, N.S.; Hafner, J.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do nocturnal rodents in the Great Basin Desert avoid moonlight? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal Journal of Mammalogy  
  Volume 94 Issue 1 Pages (up) 59-72  
  Keywords Animals; Moonlight  
  Abstract Rodents make foraging decisions by balancing demands to acquire energy and mates with the need to avoid predators. To identify variations in the risk of predation, nocturnal rodents may use moonlight as a cue of risk. Moonlight avoidance behaviors have been observed in many nocturnal rodent species and are widely generalized to small mammals. However, most prior studies have been limited to 1 species or 1 study site, or occurred in modified habitats. We evaluated desert rodent activity patterns in natural habitats from 1999 to 2006 at 62 study sites across the Great Basin Desert of western North America. Rodent activity was examined by livetrapping in open habitats, using the presence of the sand-obligate kangaroo mouse (Microdipodops) as a habitat indicator. Activity patterns were assessed on 69 nights with clear skies and compared to corresponding moonlight values (moon phase and brightness) to evaluate the frequency of moonlight avoidance. Analyses of total activity of all species in the rodent assemblage relative to moonlight showed a distinct nonrandom (triangular-shaped) pattern but no significant correlations. However, individual genera of desert rodents responded differently to moonlight. Only kangaroo rats (Dipodomys) displayed significant moonlight avoidance patterns; they were maximally active at significantly different moonlight levels and avoided bright moonlight to a greater extent than co-occurring rodents. Moonlight seemed to limit the activity of kangaroo rats most strongly on bright nights during waxing moon phases and summer seasons, but not significantly during the spring or fall seasons, or during waning moons. Rather than avoiding moonlight, the activity of deer mice (Peromyscus), pocket mice (Perognathus), and kangaroo mice may be governed by changes in competition with kangaroo rats. Differences in the body size, locomotion, and space use of kangaroo rats relative to other rodents may explain why different moonlight responses were detected, especially if these traits alter how rodents perceive risk from bright moonlight. These findings indicate that moonlight avoidance may be a specialized trait of kangaroo rats rather than a general behavior of nocturnal desert rodents in the Great Basin.  
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  ISSN 0022-2372 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1555  
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Goymann, W.; Helm, B.; Partecke, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urban-like night illumination reduces melatonin release in European blackbirds (Turdus merula): implications of city life for biological time-keeping of songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Frontiers in Zoology Abbreviated Journal Front Zool  
  Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages (up) 60  
  Keywords European blackbirds; birds; Turdus merula; animals; melatonin; *Photoperiod  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Artificial light-at-night is known to affect a broad array of behaviours and physiological processes. In urbanized bird species, light-at-night advances important biological rhythms such as daily cycles of activity/rest and timing of reproduction, but our knowledge of the underlying physiological mechanisms is limited. Given its role as chronobiological signal, melatonin is a strong candidate for mediating the effects of light-at-night. RESULTS: We exposed urban and rural European blackbirds (Turdus merula) to two light treatments equal in photoperiod but with different light intensities at night. The control group was exposed to 0.0001 lux (almost darkness), while the experimental group was exposed to 0.3 lux at night, simulating conditions recorded previously on free-living urban blackbirds. We obtained diel profiles of plasma melatonin for all birds in summer (July) and winter (January), while simultaneously recording locomotor activity. Daily patterns of melatonin concentrations were clearly affected by light-at-night in both seasons. In winter, melatonin concentrations of light-at-night birds were lower in the early and late night than in those of birds kept in darkness. In summer, melatonin concentrations of the light-at-night birds were lower through all night compared to birds kept in darkness. Locomotor activity in light-at-night birds was overall higher than in control individuals, both during the day and at night, and it increased sharply before dawn. In winter, the amount of activity before dawn in the light-at-night group correlated with changes in melatonin from midnight to late night: the greater the decrease in melatonin, the greater the amount of pre-dawn activity. Urban and rural birds responded similarly to light-at-night with respect to melatonin, but differed in their behaviour, with rural birds showing more locomotor activity than urban counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: This study points to reduced melatonin release at night as a potential physiological mechanism underlying the advanced onset of morning activity of urbanized birds. Based on the pattern of melatonin secretion, we suggest that birds responded to light-at-night as if they were exposed to a longer day than birds kept under dark nights.  
  Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell, Germany. ddominoni@orn.mpg.de  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1742-9994 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:24090446; PMCID:PMC3850952 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 41  
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