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Author Riley, W. D.; Davison, P. I.; Maxwell, D. L.; Bendall, B.
Title Street lighting delays and disrupts the dispersal of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Biological conservation Abbreviated Journal
Volume 158 Issue Pages (up) 140-146
Keywords animals; fish; animal behaviour
Abstract There has been a decline in the abundance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) despite significant conservation measures designed to reduce fishing mortality. Populations at the southern edge of their historical distribution, where anthropogenic impacts on the freshwater environment may be greater, have suffered the largest decline. In this investigation, we compared the timing of Atlantic salmon fry dispersal from incubators in an aquarium under control and ecologically relevant broad spectrum street-lit conditions (median night light intensity = 12 lx). Fry dispersal occurred 2.8 days later (F = 82.9, df = 1,8, p < 0.001), and on average the fry were smaller at dispersal (0.017 g, se = 0.0012, p < 0.001, n = 730), in the incubators exposed to street lighting. Significant disruption to the diel pattern of fry dispersal was also observed. Dispersal under control conditions was significantly directed around a mean time of 4:17 h after dusk (p < 0.001, r = 0.76, n = 1990) with very few fry (<2%) dispersing during daylight hours. Under street lighting, the dispersal of fry was significantly delayed (mean time 6:38 h after dusk; p < 0.001, r = 0.39, n = 2413) with a significant proportion (32%) dispersing during daylight hours. Survival to dispersal in the controlled aquarium conditions was not lower under street-lit conditions (p = 0.21, n = 5000 eggs across 10 incubators). However, in the wild, the period between fry emergence and the establishment of feeding territories is considered to be of critical importance in the dynamics of salmonid populations and any disruption may reduce fitness.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1599
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Author Edensor, T.; Millington, S.
Title Blackpool Illuminations: revaluing local cultural production, situated creativity and working-class values Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Cultural Policy Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Cultural Policy
Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages (up) 145-161
Keywords Society
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ISSN 1028-6632 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1033
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Author Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J
Title Mice exposed to dim light at night exaggerate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Abbreviated Journal
Volume 34 Issue Pages (up) 159-163
Keywords animals; rodents; metabolism; health
Abstract The mammalian circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. Appropriately timed light information is essential for maintaining circadian organization. Over the past &#8764;120 years, urbanization and the widespread adoption of electric lights have dramatically altered lighting environments. Exposure to light at night (LAN) is pervasive in modern society and disrupts core circadian clock mechanisms. Because microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain and macrophages contain intrinsic circadian clocks, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to LAN would alter microglia cytokine expression and sickness behavior following LPS administration. Exposure to 4 weeks of dim LAN elevated inflammatory responses in mice. Mice exposed to dimly lit, as compared to dark, nights exaggerated changes in body temperature and elevated microglia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following LPS administration. Furthermore, dLAN mice had a prolonged sickness response following the LPS challenge. Mice exposed to dark or dimly lit nights had comparable sickness behavior directly following the LPS injection; however, dLAN mice showed greater reductions in locomotor activity, increased anorectic behavior, and increased weight loss than mice maintained in dark nights 24 h post-LPS injection. Overall, these data suggest that chronic exposure to even very low levels of light pollution may alter inflammatory responses. These results may have important implications for humans and other urban dwelling species that commonly experience nighttime light exposure.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1588
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Author Kayaba, M.; Iwayama, K.; Ogata, H.; Seya, Y.; Tokuyama, K.; Satoh, M.
Title Drowsiness and low energy metabolism in the following morning induced by nocturnal blue light exposure Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Sleep Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sleep Medicine
Volume 14 Issue Pages (up) e166-e167
Keywords blue light; light exposure; light at night; circadian disruption; drowsiness; melatonin; metabolism; sleep
Abstract Introduction

Evening light exposure debilitates the circadian rhythm and elicits sleep disturbance. Blue light peak wavelengths, around 460 nm, suppress melatonin secretion via the non-image-forming system. The effects of nocturnal blue light exposure on sleep have been reported to be specific but rather small (Münch, 2008). This study was designed to assess the effect of nocturnal blue light exposure on sleep and energy metabolism until noon the next day.

Materials and methods

Nine healthy male volunteers aged between 21 and 25 participated in this study which had a balanced cross-over design with intrasubject comparisons. After 2 h dark adaptation, the subjects were exposed to blue light or no light for 2 h. The peak wavelength of the blue LED was 465 nm, and the horizontal irradiance of the blue light at the height of eye was at 7.02fÊW/cm2. Sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and energy metabolism was measured with a whole body indirect calorimeter.

Results

There were no significant differences in sleep architecture and energy metabolism during the night. However, dozing (stages 1 and 2) was significantly higher (26.0 < 29.4 vs 6.3 < 8.1 min, P < 0.05), and energy expenditure, O2 consumption, CO2 production and the thermic effect of food (increase in energy expenditure after breakfast) were significantly lower the following morning in the blue light exposure subjects.

Conclusion

Contrary to our expectation, sleep architecture and energy metabolism during sleep were not affected by evening exposure to blue light. It might be due to our milder intervention by which subjects in a sitting position did not gaze at the light source set on the ceiling, while the subjects in previous studies directly received brighter light via custom built goggles (Cajochen, 2005; Münch, 2008) or gazed at a light source under the influence of mydriatic agents to dilate pupils (Brainard, 2001). New findings of the present study were that dozing (stages 1 and 2) was significantly increased, and energy metabolism was significantly lower the following morning in blue light exposed subjects. This suggests that modulation of the circadian rhythm is affected by nocturnal blue light exposure and the effect continues in the following daytime even if the intervention was mild.
Address University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Japan
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ISSN 1389-9457 ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 349
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Author Knutsson, A.; Alfredsson, L.; Karlsson, B.; Akerstedt, T.; Fransson, E.I.; Westerholm, P.; Westerlund, H.
Title Breast cancer among shift workers: results of the WOLF longitudinal cohort study Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health Abbreviated Journal Scand J Work Environ Health
Volume 39 Issue 2 Pages (up) 170-177
Keywords Adult; Aged; Breast Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Circadian Rhythm; Female; Humans; Incidence; Longitudinal Studies; Middle Aged; Proportional Hazards Models; Risk Assessment; Sweden/epidemiology; *Work Schedule Tolerance; oncogenesis
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether shift work (with or without night work) is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. METHODS: The population consisted of 4036 women. Data were obtained from WOLF (Work, Lipids, and Fibrinogen), a longitudinal cohort study. Information about baseline characteristics was based on questionnaire responses and medical examination. Cancer incidence from baseline to follow-up was obtained from the national cancer registry. Two exposure groups were identified: shift work with and without night work. The group with day work only was used as the reference group in the analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate relative risk. RESULTS: In total, 94 women developed breast cancer during follow-up. The average follow-up time was 12.4 years. The hazard ratio for breast cancer was 1.23 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.70-2.17] for shifts without night work and 2.02 (95% CI 1.03-3.95) for shifts with night work. When including only women <60 years of age, the risk estimates were 1.18 (95% CI 0.67-2.07) for shifts without night work, and 2.15 (95% CI 1.10-4.21) for shifts with night work. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an increased risk for breast cancer among women who work shifts that includes night work.
Address Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall. Sweden. Anders.Knutsson@miun.se
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ISSN 0355-3140 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23007867 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 154
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