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Author Stevens, R.G.; Brainard, G.C.; Blask, D.E.; Lockley, S.W.; Motta, M.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Adverse health effects of nighttime lighting: comments on American Medical Association policy statement Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication American Journal of Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Am J Prev Med  
  Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 343-346  
  Keywords American Medical Association; Cell Cycle/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; DNA Damage/physiology; *Health Policy; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects; United States  
  Abstract The American Medical Association House of Delegates in June of 2012 adopted a policy statement on nighttime lighting and human health. This major policy statement summarizes the scientific evidence that nighttime electric light can disrupt circadian rhythms in humans and documents the rapidly advancing understanding from basic science of how disruption of circadian rhythmicity affects aspects of physiology with direct links to human health, such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, and metabolism. The human evidence is also accumulating, with the strongest epidemiologic support for a link of circadian disruption from light at night to breast cancer. There are practical implications of the basic and epidemiologic science in the form of advancing lighting technologies that better accommodate human circadian rhythmicity.  
  Address University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030-6325, USA. bugs@uchc.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN (up) 0749-3797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23953362 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 130  
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Author Femia, N.; Fortunato, M.; Vitelli, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-to-Light: PV-Fed LED Lighting Systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics Abbreviated Journal IEEE Trans. Power Electron.  
  Volume 28 Issue 8 Pages 4063-4073  
  Keywords light-to-light systems; outdoor lighting; lighting technology; LED; LED lighting; photovoltaics; PV  
  Abstract This paper discusses the principle of operation, dynamic modeling, and control design for light-to-light (LtL) systems, whose aim is to directly convert the sun irradiation into artificial light. The system discussed in this paper is composed by a photovoltaic (PV) panel, an LED array, a dc-dc converter dedicated to the maximum power point tracking of the PV panel and a dc-dc converter dedicated to drive the LEDs array. A system controller is also included, whose goal is to ensure the matching between the maximum available PV power and the LED power by means of a low-frequency LEDs dimming. An experimental design example is discussed to illustrate the functionalities of the LtL system.  
  Address Dipt. di Ing. Elettron. e Ing. Inf., Univ. of Salerno, Salerno, Italy  
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  ISSN (up) 0885-8993 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 331  
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Do artificially illuminated skies affect biodiversity in nocturnal landscapes? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Landscape Ecology Abbreviated Journal Landscape Ecol  
  Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 1637-1640  
  Keywords skyglow; light pollution; biodiversity  
  Abstract The skyglow from cities at night is one of the most dramatic modifications that humans have made to Earth’s biosphere, and it is increasingly extending into nocturnal landscapes (nightscapes) far beyond urban areas. This scattered light is dim and homogenous compared to a lit street, but can be bright compared to natural celestial light sources, such as stars. Because of the large area of Earth affected by artificial skyglow, it is essential to verify whether skyglow is a selective pressure in nocturnal landscapes. We propose two scientific approaches that could examine whether skyglow affects biodiversity.  
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  ISSN (up) 0921-2973 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 35  
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Author Dacke, M.; Baird, E.; Byrne, M.; Scholtz, C.H.; Warrant, E.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 298-300  
  Keywords Animals; Beetles/*physiology; *Behavior, Animal; Cues; Feces; *Galaxies; Locomotion; Moon; Motor Activity; Orientation/*physiology; *Stars, Celestial; Vision, Ocular/physiology; Milky Way; insects  
  Abstract When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom.  
  Address Department of Biology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. marie.dacke@biol.lu.se  
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  ISSN (up) 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23352694 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 116  
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Author Cajochen, C.; Altanay-Ekici, S.; Munch, M.; Frey, S.; Knoblauch, V.; Wirz-Justice, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evidence that the lunar cycle influences human sleep Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 15 Pages 1485-1488  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Cross-Sectional Studies; Electroencephalography; Female; Humans; Hydrocortisone/analysis/metabolism; Male; Melatonin/analysis/metabolism; Middle Aged; Moon; Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation; Periodicity; Saliva/metabolism; Sleep/*physiology; Sleep Stages/physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Endogenous rhythms of circalunar periodicity ( approximately 29.5 days) and their underlying molecular and genetic basis have been demonstrated in a number of marine species [1, 2]. In contrast, there is a great deal of folklore but no consistent association of moon cycles with human physiology and behavior [3]. Here we show that subjective and objective measures of sleep vary according to lunar phase and thus may reflect circalunar rhythmicity in humans. To exclude confounders such as increased light at night or the potential bias in perception regarding a lunar influence on sleep, we retrospectively analyzed sleep structure, electroencephalographic activity during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, and secretion of the hormones melatonin and cortisol found under stringently controlled laboratory conditions in a cross-sectional setting. At no point during and after the study were volunteers or investigators aware of the a posteriori analysis relative to lunar phase. We found that around full moon, electroencephalogram (EEG) delta activity during NREM sleep, an indicator of deep sleep, decreased by 30%, time to fall asleep increased by 5 min, and EEG-assessed total sleep duration was reduced by 20 min. These changes were associated with a decrease in subjective sleep quality and diminished endogenous melatonin levels. This is the first reliable evidence that a lunar rhythm can modulate sleep structure in humans when measured under the highly controlled conditions of a circadian laboratory study protocol without time cues.  
  Address Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, 4012 Basel, Switzerland. christian.cajochen@upkbs.ch  
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  ISSN (up) 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23891110 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 140  
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