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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Wagner, J.M.; Kuechly, H.U.; Walker, C.E.; Elvidge, C.D.; Falchi, F.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Citizen science provides valuable data for monitoring global night sky luminance Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci Rep  
  Volume 3 Issue (up) Pages 1835  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The skyglow produced by artificial lights at night is one of the most dramatic anthropogenic modifications of Earth's biosphere. The GLOBE at Night citizen science project allows individual observers to quantify skyglow using star maps showing different levels of light pollution. We show that aggregated GLOBE at Night data depend strongly on artificial skyglow, and could be used to track lighting changes worldwide. Naked eye time series can be expected to be very stable, due to the slow pace of human eye evolution. The standard deviation of an individual GLOBE at Night observation is found to be 1.2 stellar magnitudes. Zenith skyglow estimates from the “First World Atlas of Artificial Night Sky Brightness” are tested using a subset of the GLOBE at Night data. Although we find the World Atlas overestimates sky brightness in the very center of large cities, its predictions for Milky Way visibility are accurate.  
  Address Institute for Space Sciences, Freie Universitat Berlin, Berlin, Germany. christopher.kyba@wew.fu-berlin.de  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23677222; PMCID:PMC3655480 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 13  
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Author Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Mineau, P.; MacDonald, B.; Bert, D.G.; Sullivan, L.M.; Mutrie, E.; Gauthreaux Jr., S.A.; Avery, M.L.; Crawford, R.L.; Manville II, A.M.; Travis, E.R.; Drake, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 158 Issue (up) Pages 410-419  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Birds migrating to and from breeding grounds in the United States and Canada are killed by the millions in collisions with lighted towers and their guy wires. Avian mortality at towers is highly variable across species, and the importance to each population depends on its size and trajectory. Building on our previous estimate of avian mortality at communication towers, we calculated mortality by species and by regions. To do this, we constructed a database of mortality by species at towers from available records and calculated the mean proportion of each species killed at towers within aggregated Bird Conservation Regions. These proportions were combined with mortality estimates that we previously calculated for those regions. We then compared our estimated bird mortality rates to the estimated populations of these species in the United States and Canada. Neotropical migrants suffer the greatest mortality; 97.4% of birds killed are passerines, mostly warblers (Parulidae, 58.4%), vireos (Vireonidae, 13.4%), thrushes (Turdidae, 7.7%), and sparrows (Emberizidae, 5.8%). Thirteen birds of conservation concern in the United States or Canada suffer annual mortality of 1–9% of their estimated total population. Of these, estimated annual mortality is >2% for Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis), Swainson’s Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii), Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea), Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera), Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermivorum), Prairie Warbler (Setophaga discolor), and Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla). Avian mortality from anthropogenic sources is almost always reported in the aggregate (“number of birds killed”), which cannot detect the species-level effects necessary to make conservation assessments. Our approach to per species estimates could be undertaken for other sources of chronic anthropogenic mortality.  
  Address Communication towers; Mortality; Night lighting; Neotropical migrants; Collisions; Impact assessment; birds  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 54  
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night increases depressive-like responses in male C3H/HeNHsd mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 243 Issue (up) Pages 74-78  
  Keywords Affect/physiology; Anhedonia/physiology; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Depression/*etiology/physiopathology; Hippocampus/*metabolism/pathology; Light/*adverse effects; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C3H; Neuropsychological Tests; Photoperiod  
  Abstract Daily patterns of light exposure have become increasingly variable since the widespread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20th century. Seasonal fluctuations in light exposure, shift-work, and transmeridian travel are all associated with alterations in mood. These studies implicate fluctuations in environmental lighting in the development of depressive disorders. Here we argue that exposure to light at night (LAN) may be causally linked to depression. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, which produce nocturnal melatonin, were housed in either a standard light/dark (LD) cycle or exposed to nightly dim (5 lux) LAN (dLAN). After four weeks in lighting conditions mice underwent behavioral testing and hippocampal tissue was collected at the termination of the study for qPCR. Here were report that mice exposed to dLAN increase depressive-like responses in both a sucrose anhedonia and forced swim test. In contrast to findings in diurnal grass rats, dLAN mice perform comparably to mice housed under dark nights in a hippocampus-dependent learning and memory task. TNFalpha and IL1beta gene expression do not differ between groups, demonstrating that changes in these pro-inflammatory cytokines do not mediate dLAN induced depressive-like responses in mice. BDNF expression is reduced in the hippocampus of mice exposed to dLAN. These results indicate that low levels of LAN can alter mood in mice. This study along with previous work implicates LAN as a potential factor contributing to depression. Further understanding of the mechanisms through which LAN contributes to changes in mood is important for characterizing and treating depressive disorders.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23291153 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 95  
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Author Collison, F.M.; Poe, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title “Astronomical Tourism”: The Astronomy and Dark Sky Program at Bryce Canyon National Park Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Tourism Management Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Tourism Management Perspectives  
  Volume 7 Issue (up) Pages 1-15  
  Keywords Astronomy-related tourism; National parks; Night sky darkness; astrotourism; dark skies  
  Abstract Astronomical tourism represents a less-studied segment of sustainable tourism, where a dark night sky is the underlying resource. This article evaluates an astronomical tourism program, in this case at a national park with dark skies for observing. Bryce Canyon National Park (BCNP) in the southwestern United States has a well-developed astronomy program to serve visitors. The program consists of solar viewing during the day, multimedia evening programs, and night-time star gazing with telescopes. Depending on the specific measure used, it appears that up to 10% of park visitors may be involved with the formal Astronomy and Dark Sky Program and/or more informal astronomy activities. BCNP appears well positioned to take advantage of the dark sky attributes of the park and to educate visitors about the importance of maintaining and/or increasing the darkness of night skies. Potential future developments in the program may serve to further increase the number of visitors to BCNP.  
  Address School of Travel Industry Management, 1901 Ruby Lane, Liberty, MO 64068; collison(at)hawaii.edu  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2211-9736 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 128  
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Author Tang, L.; Cheng, H.; Qu, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Estimating Provincial Economic Development Level of China Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Satellite Imagery Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Advanced Materials Research Abbreviated Journal Amr  
  Volume 807-809 Issue (up) Pages 1903-1908  
  Keywords Curve Fitting; DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light; Economic Development; Provincial Scale; Regression Analysis; *Economics  
  Abstract How to estimate regional economic development level is important for solving regional inequality problems. Most of previous studies on regional economic development are based on the statistics collected typically in administrative units. This paper has analyzed the defects of traditional studies, and attempted to research regional economic development problems with 10-year DMSP/OLS nighttime light satellite imagery as a new data source. For exploring the relationship between DMSP/OLS nighttime light data and GDP, different types of curve fitting regression models have been tried, the Cubic model has shown the best performance with a coefficient of determination (R2) equal to 0.803. Based on this positive correlation, we have estimated provincial economic development level of China using DMSP/OLS nighttime light data. The research results have indicated that the DMSP/OLS nighttime light data can well reveal provincial economic development levels.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1662-8985 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 202  
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Author Mazor, T.; Levin, N.; Possingham, H.P.; Levy, Y.; Rocchini, D.; Richardson, A.J.; Kark, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Can satellite-based night lights be used for conservation? The case of nesting sea turtles in the Mediterranean Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation  
  Volume 159 Issue (up) Pages 63-72  
  Keywords Artificial night lights; Caretta caretta; Chelonia mydas; Coastal conservation; Satellite imagery; Sea turtle conservation  
  Abstract Artificial night lights pose a major threat to multiple species. However, this threat is often disregarded in conservation management and action because it is difficult to quantify its effect. Increasing availability of high spatial-resolution satellite images may enable us to better incorporate this threat into future work, particularly in highly modified ecosystems such as the coastal zone. In this study we examine the potential of satellite night light imagery to predict the distribution of the endangered loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtle nests in the eastern Mediterranean coastline. Using remote sensing tools and high resolution data derived from the SAC-C satellite and the International Space Station, we examined the relationship between the long term spatial patterns of sea turtle nests and the intensity of night lights along Israel’s entire Mediterranean coastline. We found that sea turtles nests are negatively related to night light intensity and are concentrated in darker sections along the coast. Our resulting GLMs showed that night lights were a significant factor for explaining the distribution of sea turtle nests. Other significant variables included: cliff presence, human population density and infrastructure. This study is one of the first to show that night lights estimated with satellite-based imagery can be used to help explain sea turtle nesting activity at a detailed resolution over large areas. This approach can facilitate the management of species affected by night lights, and will be particularly useful in areas that are inaccessible or where broad-scale prioritization of conservation action is required.  
  Address ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 213  
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Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night on Earth: Mapping decadal changes of anthropogenic night light in Asia Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  
  Volume 22 Issue (up) Pages 40-52  
  Keywords Urban; Night light; DMSP-OLS; Landsat; Zipf; Asia; India; China; Nightsat; remote sensing; light at night; satellite  
  Abstract The defense meteorological satellite program (DMSP) operational linescan system (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970s. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years (Elvidge et al., 2009). The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of the growth and evolution of lighted human settlements and development. We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the temporal feature space to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs and spatial structure of the PCs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic multi-year trends and stochastic year-to-year variance. The low order EOFs and principal components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict potentially deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. At critical brightness threshold we find an 18% increase in the number of spatially distinct lights and an 80% increase in lighted area in southern and eastern Asia between 1992 and 2009. During this time both China and India experienced a &#8764;20% increase in number of lights and a &#8764;270% increase in lighted area – although the timing of the increase is later in China than in India. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are apparent in tri-temporal brightness composites – as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution Landsat imagery verifies multiple phases of urban growth in several cities as well as the consistent presence of low DN (<&#8764;15) background luminance for many agricultural areas. Lights also allow us to quantify changes in the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, the size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are consistent with power laws with exponents near &#8722;1 as predicted by Zipf's Law for cities. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development (Small et al., 2011).  
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  ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 222  
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Author Lorenc, T.; Petticrew, M.; Whitehead, M.; Neary, D.; Clayton, S.; Wright, K.; Thomson, H.; Cummins, S.; Sowden, A.; Renton, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Syst Rev  
  Volume 2 Issue (up) Pages 30  
  Keywords *Crime; *Environment Design; *Fear; Humans; Milieu Therapy/*standards; *Public Health; *Safety  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. METHODS: This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.  
  Address Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 5-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK. theo.lorenc@lshtm.ac.uk  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2046-4053 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23663285; PMCID:PMC3660218 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 251  
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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.  
  Volume 3 Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords Artificial light; light at nightl skyglow; measurements  
  Abstract Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 255  
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Skyglow effects in UV and visible spectra: radiative fluxes Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage  
  Volume 127 Issue (up) Pages 300-307  
  Keywords Animals; Darkness; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; *Light; Models, Theoretical; *Ultraviolet Rays; Light pollution; Optical thickness; Public lighting system; Two stream approximation  
  Abstract Several studies have tried to understand the mechanisms and effects of radiative transfer under different night-sky conditions. However, most of these studies are limited to the various effects of visible spectra. Nevertheless, the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can pose a more profound threat to nature. One visible threat is from what is popularly termed skyglow. Such skyglow is caused by injudiciously situated or designed artificial night lighting systems which degrade desired sky viewing. Therefore, since lamp emissions are not limited to visible electromagnetic spectra, it is necessary to consider the complete spectrum of such lamps in order to understand the physical behaviour of diffuse radiation at terrain level. In this paper, the downward diffuse radiative flux is computed in a two-stream approximation and obtained ultraviolet spectral radiative fluxes are inter-related with luminous fluxes. Such a method then permits an estimate of ultraviolet radiation if the traditionally measured illuminance on a horizontal plane is available. The utility of such a comparison of two spectral bands is shown, using the different lamp types employed in street lighting. The data demonstrate that it is insufficient to specify lamp type and its visible flux production independently of each other. Also the UV emissions have to be treated by modellers and environmental scientists because some light sources can be fairly important pollutants in the near ultraviolet. Such light sources can affect both the living organisms and ambient environment.  
  Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 9, Dubravska Road, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. kocifaj@savba.sk  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23792881 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 265  
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