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Author Vullings, L.A.E.; Blok, C.A.; Wessels, C.G.A.M.; Bulens, J.D.
Title Dealing with the Uncertainty of Having Incomplete Sources of Geo-Information in Spatial Planning Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy Abbreviated Journal Appl. Spatial Analysis
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages 25-45
Keywords (up) Economics
Abstract The Dutch spatial planning legal act of 2008 was aimed at improving efficiency and effectiveness in the development, evaluation and monitoring of spatial planning policy (Ministry of VROM, 2006a). One of the main effects of this legal act was the widespread availability and use of digital spatial plans (Ministry of VROM 2006a, b). This reform led to the expectation that all digital spatial plans would be exchangeable and comparable. In practice, this exchange and comparison required carrying out complex procedures due to uncertainty caused by differences in the scope of spatial plans as well as their intended use. Furthermore the uncertainty resulted in a lack of confidence in spatial plans by policymakers and supporting GIS staff. Our overarching research question was: how can uncertainty caused by incomplete geo-information sources be dealt with? We proposed two techniques—fuzzy logic and visualisation—for policy makers to deal with uncertainty resulting from incomplete geo-information sources in spatial planning at the regional and national planning levels. We used two case studies in the Netherlands to illustrate the results of applying these techniques. The fuzzy set theory provides extra information by converting the discrete borders of continuous objects into fuzzy borders that improve the resemblance to the real object and thus make it more realistic. As shown in the second case study, visualisation also improves the degree of realism and thus provides additional information. Both case studies showed that providing additional information reduces the uncertainty felt by policymakers.
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ISSN 1874-463X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 436
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Author Lyytimäki, J.
Title Nature's nocturnal services: Light pollution as a non-recognised challenge for ecosystem services research and management Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Ecosystem Services Abbreviated Journal Ecosystem Services
Volume 3 Issue Pages e44-e48
Keywords (up) Economics; Ecosystem disservices; Ecosystem services; Environmental management; Light pollution; Scotoecology; Shifting baselines
Abstract Research focusing on ecosystem services has tackled several of the major drivers of environmental degradation, but it suffers from a blind spot related to light pollution. Light pollution caused by artificial night-time lighting is a global environmental change affecting terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems. The long-term effects of the disruption of the natural cycles of light and dark on ecosystem functioning and ecosystem services are largely unknown. Even though additional research is clearly needed, identifying, developing and implementing stringent management actions aimed at reducing inadequately installed, unnecessary or excessive lighting are well justified. This essay argues that management is hampered, because ecosystem services from nocturnal nature are increasingly underappreciated by the public due to shifting baseline syndrome, making most people accustomed to constantly illuminated and light-polluted night environments. Increased attention from scientists, managers and the public is needed in order to explicate the best options for preserving the benefits from natural darkness.
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ISSN 2212-0416 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 433
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Author Gallaway, T.; Olsen, R.N.; Mitchell, D.M.
Title Blinded by the Light: Economic Analysis of Severe Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Economic Insight Abbreviated Journal J Econ Insight
Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 45-63
Keywords (up) Economics; light pollution
Abstract This paper examines severe light pollution such as commonly found in large urban areas. Light pollution is the unintended negative consequences of poorly designed and injudiciously used artificial lighting. Light pollution generates significant costs including wasted energy and damage to human health, wildlife, recreation, and the beauty of the night sky. Typically, light-pollution models emphasize population density and ignore economic factors. Economic analysis of the issue has been singularly limited. Previous economic research has focused on widespread, but very low levels of light pollution. This paper makes a unique contribution by analyzing economic factors of severe light pollution. The paper utilizes economic data from the World Bank and unique remote sensing data for 184 countries to quantify the economic causes of severe light pollution. Fractional logit models confirm the importance of population and economic factors alike.
Address Department of Economics, Missouri State University; TerrelGallaway(at)missouristate.edu
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Publisher Missouri Valley Economic Association Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0361-6576 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2338
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Author Pottharst, M.; Könecke, B.
Title The Night and Its Loss Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Springer Netherlands Abbreviated Journal
Volume 15 Issue Pages 37-48
Keywords (up) Economy
Abstract Artificial lighting is both a precondition and a consequence of the 24-hour society. It makes public spaces safer, allows a range of economic and social activities at night and influences the way goods production and services, buildings and entire cities are organised. Despite these achievements, from early on, critical voices have drawn attention to the negative impact of artificial lighting on humans, animals, cityscapes, landscapes and energy consumption. This has recently culminated in growing criticism of ‘light pollution’. This chapter investigates from a socioeconomic perspective the economic and social functions of artificial light, on the one hand, and the ‘loss of the night’, on the other, and outlines a preliminary taxonomy of relevant positive and negative effects of nocturnal artificial light. It is part of a joint research project on the ‘loss of the night’, which aims to develop new concepts of lighting to reduce light pollution.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 867
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Author Gaston, K.J.
Title Sustainability: A green light for efficiency Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 497 Issue 7451 Pages 560-561
Keywords (up) Editorial; Animals; Atmosphere/chemistry; Carbon Dioxide/analysis; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Conservation of Energy Resources/economics/*methods/*trends; Global Warming/prevention & control; Humans; Lighting/*economics/instrumentation/statistics & numerical data/*trends; Public Health
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Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK. k.j.gaston@exeter.ac.uk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23719447 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 459
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