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Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night on Earth: Mapping decadal changes of anthropogenic night light in Asia Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  
  Volume 22 Issue Pages 40-52  
  Keywords Urban; Night light; DMSP-OLS; Landsat; Zipf; Asia; India; China; Nightsat; remote sensing; light at night; satellite  
  Abstract The defense meteorological satellite program (DMSP) operational linescan system (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970s. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years (Elvidge et al., 2009). The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of the growth and evolution of lighted human settlements and development. We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the temporal feature space to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs and spatial structure of the PCs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic multi-year trends and stochastic year-to-year variance. The low order EOFs and principal components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict potentially deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. At critical brightness threshold we find an 18% increase in the number of spatially distinct lights and an 80% increase in lighted area in southern and eastern Asia between 1992 and 2009. During this time both China and India experienced a &#8764;20% increase in number of lights and a &#8764;270% increase in lighted area – although the timing of the increase is later in China than in India. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are apparent in tri-temporal brightness composites – as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution Landsat imagery verifies multiple phases of urban growth in several cities as well as the consistent presence of low DN (<&#8764;15) background luminance for many agricultural areas. Lights also allow us to quantify changes in the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, the size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are consistent with power laws with exponents near &#8722;1 as predicted by Zipf's Law for cities. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development (Small et al., 2011).  
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  ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes (down) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 222  
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Author Lyytimäki, J.; Rinne, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Voices for the darkness: online survey on public perceptions on light pollution as an environmental problem Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences Abbreviated Journal Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences  
  Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages 127-139  
  Keywords environmental management; light pollution; public perceptions; survey; public policy  
  Abstract Light pollution is increasingly affecting ecosystems and human health. We present results from an online survey aimed to chart what aspects of lighting are considered harmful and how light pollution is perceived by the public. We focus on affluent societies by using Finland as an example of a northern industrialised country. The survey generated 2053 responses, particularly from well-educated urban persons living in residential areas and interested in astronomy or environmental issues. The results show that the lighting of residential areas and lighting serving traffic are considered the most common sources of light pollution while commercial lighting is perceived as the most annoying form of light use. Respondents commonly considered light pollution as a disturbance for outdoor recreation and relaxation. The results suggest that the ecological and health effects of light pollution emphasised by the research are poorly known by the people emphasising the aesthetic aspects. The results indicate relatively wide but passive acceptance for policy measures aimed at reducing light pollution.  
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  ISSN 1943-815X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (down) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 248  
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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light alters natural regimes of night-time sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal Sci. Rep.  
  Volume 3 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Artificial light; light at nightl skyglow; measurements  
  Abstract Artificial light is globally one of the most widely distributed forms of anthropogenic pollution. However, while both the nature and ecological effects of direct artificial lighting are increasingly well documented, those of artificial sky glow have received little attention. We investigated how city lights alter natural regimes of lunar sky brightness using a novel ten month time series of measurements recorded across a gradient of increasing light pollution. In the city, artificial lights increased sky brightness to levels six times above those recorded in rural locations, nine and twenty kilometers away. Artificial lighting masked natural monthly and seasonal regimes of lunar sky brightness in the city, and increased the number and annual regime of full moon equivalent hours available to organisms during the night. The changes have potentially profound ecological consequences.  
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  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (down) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 255  
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Author Sciezor, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A new astronomical method for determining the brightness of the night sky and its application to study long-term changes in the level of light pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society  
  Volume 435 Issue 1 Pages 303-310  
  Keywords light pollution methods; data analysis methods; observational site testing; comets; measurements; light pollution; skyglow  
  Abstract In this paper, I present a new method that has been developed for determining the brightness of a cloudless night sky, on the basis of widely available amateur observations of comets. The tests show the correctness of the method, which makes it possible to determine the level of light pollution, defined as the brightness of the artificial sky glow, through the use of the archival observations of comets. The use of data bases of comet observations in Poland in the period 1994–2009 has led to a positive verification of the known model map of the brightness of the night sky. Also, it has been possible to find changes in the level of light pollution in this period, at the selected observation sites.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (down) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 266  
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Author Johansson, M.; Pedersen, E.; Maleetipwan-Mattsson, P.; Kuhn, L.; Laike, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Perceived outdoor lighting quality (POLQ): A lighting assessment tool Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Environmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Psychology  
  Volume 39 Issue Pages 14-21  
  Keywords Perception; Street lighting; Observation-based environmental assessment; Urban space  
  Abstract A shift towards more energy-efficient light sources for outdoor lighting such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is underway. Photometric measures are not sufficient to capture how users experience the light, so complementary tools are required. This study aimed to develop an observer-based environmental assessment tool, based on bipolar semantic differentials, for outdoor lighting in urban spaces. Exploratory (N = 130) and confirmatory (N = 117) factor analyses of observations of lighting installations made by laypersons on-site along pedestrian paths, resulted in two dimensions of high reliability: the Perceived Strength Quality (PSQ, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82–0.85) and the Perceived Comfort Quality (PCQ, Cronbach's alpha = 0.77–0.81). PSQ and PCQ differentiated between light sources of different illuminance level, colour temperature and colour rendering. Regression analyses showed that the perceived lighting qualities helped to explain the variance in visual accessibility, whereas PCQ helped to explain perceived danger in the environment. The perceived lighting qualities can add to the understanding of pedestrians' perception of outdoor lighting, and is proposed as a complementary tool for development of sustainable light designs in the urban environment.  
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  ISSN 0272-4944 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (down) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 279  
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