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Author Dominoni, D.; Quetting, M.; Partecke, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night advances avian reproductive physiology Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (down) Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 280 Issue 1756 Pages 20123017  
  Keywords Animals; *Lighting; Male; Molting; Photoperiod; Reproduction/*physiology; Singing; Songbirds/*physiology; Testis/anatomy & histology; Testosterone/blood; Trees  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is a rapidly increasing phenomenon and it is presumed to have global implications. Light at night has been associated with health problems in humans as a consequence of altered biological rhythms. Effects on wild animals have been less investigated, but light at night has often been assumed to affect seasonal cycles of urban dwellers. Using light loggers attached to free-living European blackbirds (Turdus merula), we first measured light intensity at night which forest and city birds are subjected to in the wild. Then we used these measurements to test for the effect of light at night on timing of reproductive physiology. Captive city and forest blackbirds were exposed to either dark nights or very low light intensities at night (0.3 lux). Birds exposed to light at night developed their reproductive system up to one month earlier, and also moulted earlier, than birds kept under dark nights. Furthermore, city birds responded differently than forest individuals to the light at night treatment, suggesting that urbanization can alter the physiological phenotype of songbirds. Our results emphasize the impact of human-induced lighting on the ecology of millions of animals living in cities and call for an understanding of the fitness consequences of light pollution.  
  Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell 78315, Germany. ddominoni@orn.mpg.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23407836; PMCID:PMC3574380 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 50  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Stokkan, K.-A.; Folkow, L.; Dukes, J.; Neveu, M.; Hogg, C.; Siefken, S.; Dakin, S.C.; Jeffery, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shifting mirrors: adaptive changes in retinal reflections to winter darkness in Arctic reindeer Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (down) Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 280 Issue 1773 Pages 20132451  
  Keywords Animals; Skyglow  
  Abstract Arctic reindeer experience extreme changes in environmental light from continuous summer daylight to continuous winter darkness. Here, we show that they may have a unique mechanism to cope with winter darkness by changing the wavelength reflection from their tapetum lucidum (TL). In summer, it is golden with most light reflected back directly through the retina, whereas in winter it is deep blue with less light reflected out of the eye. The blue reflection in winter is associated with significantly increased retinal sensitivity compared with summer animals. The wavelength of reflection depends on TL collagen spacing, with reduced spacing resulting in shorter wavelengths, which we confirmed in summer and winter animals. Winter animals have significantly increased intra-ocular pressure, probably produced by permanent pupil dilation blocking ocular drainage. This may explain the collagen compression. The resulting shift to a blue reflection may scatter light through photoreceptors rather than directly reflecting it, resulting in elevated retinal sensitivity via increased photon capture. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of a retinal structural adaptation to seasonal changes in environmental light. Increased sensitivity occurs at the cost of reduced acuity, but may be an important adaptation in reindeer to detect moving predators in the dark Arctic winter.  
  Address Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromso, , Tromso, Norway, Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, , 11-43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, UK, Moorfields Eye Hospital, , London, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24174115; PMCID:PMC3826237 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1636  
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Author Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.-C.; Elvidge, C.D.; Zhizhin, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nighttime Lights Compositing Using the VIIRS Day-Night Band: Preliminary Results Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (down) Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network Abbreviated Journal APAN Proceedings  
  Volume 35 Issue Pages 70  
  Keywords remote sensing; light pollution; VIIRS; satellite; radiometry  
  Abstract Dramatically improved nighttime lights capabilities are presented by the launch of the National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day Night Band (DNB) sensor. Building on 18 years of experience compositing nighttime data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS), NOAA’s NGDC Earth Observation Group has started adapting their algorithms to process these new data. The concept of compositing nighttime data comprises combining only high quality data components over a period of time to improve sensitivity and coverage. For this work, flag image are compiled to describe image quality. The flag categories include: daytime, twilight, stray light, lunar illuminance, noisy edge of scan data, clouds, and no data. High quality data is defined as not having any of these attributes present. Two methods of reprojection are necessary due to data collection characteristics. Custom algorithms have been created to terrain-correct and reproject all data to a common 15 arc second grid. Results of compositing over two time periods in 2012 are presented to demonstrate data quality and initial capabilities. These data can be downloaded at http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/eog/viirs/downloadviirsntl.html.  
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  ISSN 2227-3026 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 197  
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Baugh, K.E.; Zhizhin, M.; Hsu, F.-C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Why VIIRS data are superior to DMSP for mapping nighttime lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (down) Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network Abbreviated Journal APAN Proceedings  
  Volume 35 Issue Pages 62  
  Keywords  
  Abstract For more than forty years the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has been the only satellite system collecting global low-light imaging data. A series of twenty-four DMSP satellites have collected low-light imaging data. The design of the OLS has not changed significantly since satellite F-4 flew in the late 1970’s and OLS data have relatively coarse spatial resolution, limited dynamic range, and lack in-flight calibration. In 2011 NASA and NOAA launched the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite carrying the first Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument. The VIIRS collects low light imaging data and has several improvements over the OLS’ capabilities. In this paper we contrast the nighttime low light imaging collection capabilities of these two systems and compare their data products.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 2227-3026 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 198  
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Author Baugh, K.; Elvidge, C.D.; Ghosh, T.; Ziskin, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Development of a 2009 Stable Lights Product using DMSP-OLS data Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (down) Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network Abbreviated Journal APAN Proceedings  
  Volume 30 Issue Pages 114  
  Keywords DMSP-OLS; remote sensing  
  Abstract Since 1994, NGDC has had an active program focused on global mapping of nighttime lights using the data collected by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) sensors. The basic product is a global annual cloud-free composite, which averages the OLS visible band data for one satellite from the cloud-free segments of individual orbits. Over the years, NGDC has developed automatic algorithms for screening the quality of the nighttime visible band observations to remove areas contaminated by sunlight, moonlight, and the presence of clouds. In the Stable Lights product generation, fires and other ephemeral lights are removed based on their high brightness and short duration. Background noise is removed by setting thresholds based on visible band values found in areas known to be free of detectable lights. In 2010, NGDC released the version 4 time series of Stable Lights, spanning the years 1992-2009. These are available online at <http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/downloadV4composites.html>.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2227-3026 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 207  
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