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Author Troy, J.R.; Holmes, N.D.; Veech, J.A.; Green, M.C.
Title Using observed seabird fallout records to infer patterns of attraction to artificial light Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication (up) Endangered Species Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume 22 Issue 3 Pages 225-234
Keywords Animals; Anthropogenic light; GIS-based modeling; Hawaii; Kauai; Light attraction; Procellariiformes; Newell’s shearwater; Seabird conservation
Abstract Attraction of fledgling shearwaters, petrels, and storm-petrels to artificial light has been documented for decades on islands around the world and is considered a significant threat to many species. Although large numbers of downed birds have been observed after being disoriented by light, several important elements of this ‘fallout’ phenomenon are unknown, including the locations along the path from nest to ocean at which attraction and/or disorientation occurs and whether fledglings can be attracted back to land after reaching the ocean in numbers large enough to contribute significantly to fallout. To investigate these questions, we compared observed Newell’s shearwater Puffinus newelli fallout records (from 1998 to 2009) on Kauai, USA, with expected numbers generated from several hypothetical models containing basic assumptions related to fledgling movement and attraction to light. Based on our results, the spatial pattern of observed fallout is consistent with the amount of light that fledglings may view along their first flights to and beyond the coastline. This suggests that even fledglings from dark regions of the island may not be safe because they may view light after reaching the ocean and still be susceptible to attraction. These findings support recent modeling efforts predicting that most birds fledging from Kauai are likely exposed to at least some anthropogenic light. As nocturnal use of light by humans is unlikely to be eliminated, research on the types of artificial light that are both useful to humans and safe for seabirds may be crucial for the conservation of these important marine animals.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 383
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Lieberman, R.A.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Dim light at night exaggerates weight gain and inflammation associated with a high-fat diet in male mice Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication (up) Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Endocrinology
Volume 154 Issue 10 Pages 3817-3825
Keywords Adipose Tissue, White/*immunology/metabolism/pathology; Animals; Antigens, CD11b/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Appetite Regulation/*radiation effects; Arcuate Nucleus/*immunology/metabolism/pathology; Behavior, Animal/radiation effects; Circadian Rhythm; Cytokines/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Diet, High-Fat/*adverse effects; Feeding Behavior/radiation effects; Gene Expression Regulation; Glucose Intolerance/etiology/immunology/metabolism/pathology; I-kappa B Kinase/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Insulin Resistance; Lighting/*adverse effects; Male; Mice; Microglia/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Nerve Tissue Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics/metabolism; Obesity/*etiology/immunology/metabolism/pathology; Random Allocation; *Weight Gain
Abstract Elevated nighttime light exposure is associated with symptoms of metabolic syndrome. In industrialized societies, high-fat diet (HFD) and exposure to light at night (LAN) often cooccur and may contribute to the increasing obesity epidemic. Thus, we hypothesized that dim LAN (dLAN) would provoke additional and sustained body mass gain in mice on a HFD. Male mice were housed in either a standard light/dark cycle or dLAN and fed either chow or HFD. Exposure to dLAN and HFD increase weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance, and alter insulin secretion as compared with light/dark cycle and chow, respectively. The effects of dLAN and HFD appear additive, because mice exposed to dLAN that were fed HFD display the greatest increases in body mass. Exposure to both dLAN and HFD also change the timing of food intake and increase TNFalpha and MAC1 gene expression in white adipose tissue after 4 experimental weeks. Changes in MAC1 gene expression occur more rapidly due to HFD as compared with dLAN; after 5 days of experimental conditions, mice fed HFD already increase MAC1 gene expression in white adipose tissue. HFD also elevates microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and hypothalamic TNFalpha, IL-6, and Ikbkb gene expression. Microglia activation is increased by dLAN, but only among chow-fed mice and dLAN does not affect inflammatory gene expression. These results suggest that dLAN exaggerates weight gain and peripheral inflammation associated with HFD.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, 636 Biomedical Research Tower, 460 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210. fonken.1@osu.edu
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ISSN 0013-7227 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23861373 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 93
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Author Solbrig, J.E.; Lee, T.E.; Miller, S.D.
Title Advances in Remote Sensing: Imaging the Earth by Moonlight Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication (up) Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union Abbreviated Journal Eos Trans. AGU
Volume 94 Issue 40 Pages 349-350
Keywords Remote Sensing; night; visible; VIIRS
Abstract Earth's nighttime environment is being revealed in unprecedented detail by the new satellite-mounted Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). VIIRS' Day/Night Band (DNB) is a highly sensitive broadband visible channel capable of detecting light from cities and other terrestrial emission sources.
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ISSN 0096-3941 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 486
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Author Nickla, D.L.
Title Ocular diurnal rhythms and eye growth regulation: where we are 50 years after Lauber Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication (up) Experimental eye Research Abbreviated Journal Exp Eye Res
Volume 114 Issue Pages 25-34
Keywords Vision; Human Health; Review
Abstract Many ocular processes show diurnal oscillations that optimize retinal function under the different conditions of ambient illumination encountered over the course of the 24 h light/dark cycle. Abolishing the diurnal cues by the use of constant darkness or constant light results in excessive ocular elongation, corneal flattening, and attendant refractive errors. A prevailing hypothesis is that the absence of the Zeitgeber of light and dark alters ocular circadian rhythms in some manner, and results in an inability of the eye to regulate its growth in order to achieve emmetropia, the matching of the front optics to eye length. Another visual manipulation that results in the eye growth system going into a “default” mode of excessive growth is form deprivation, in which a translucent diffuser deprives the eye of visual transients (spatial or temporal) while not significantly reducing light levels; these eyes rapidly elongate and become myopic. It has been hypothesized that form deprivation might constitute a type of “constant condition” whereby the absence of visual transients drives the eye into a similar default mode as that in response to constant light or dark. Interest in the potential influence of light cycles and ambient lighting in human myopia development has been spurred by a recent study showing a positive association between the amount of time that children spent outdoors and a reduced prevalence of myopia. The growing eyes of chickens and monkeys show a diurnal rhythm in axial length: Eyes elongate more during the day than during the night. There is also a rhythm in choroidal thickness that is in approximate anti-phase to the rhythm in eye length. The phases are altered in eyes growing too fast, in response to form deprivation or negative lenses, or too slowly, in response to myopic defocus, suggesting an influence of phase on the emmetropization system. Other potential rhythmic influences include dopamine and melatonin, which form a reciprocal feedback loop, and signal “day” and “night” respectively. Retinal dopamine is reduced during the day in form deprived myopic eyes, and dopamine D2 agonists inhibit ocular growth in animal models. Rhythms in intraocular pressure as well, may influence eye growth, perhaps as a mechanical stimulus triggering changes in scleral extracellular matrix synthesis. Finally, evidence shows varying influences of environmental lighting parameters on the emmetropization system, such as high intensity light being protective against myopia in chickens. This review will cover the evidence for the possible influence of these various factors on ocular growth. The recognition that ocular rhythms may play a role in emmetropization is a first step toward understanding how they may be manipulated in treatment therapies to prevent myopia in humans.
Address New England College of Optometry, Department of Biosciences, 424 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA. nicklad@neco.edu
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ISSN 0014-4835 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23298452; PMCID:PMC3742730 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1987
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Goymann, W.; Helm, B.; Partecke, J.
Title Urban-like night illumination reduces melatonin release in European blackbirds (Turdus merula): implications of city life for biological time-keeping of songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication (up) Frontiers in Zoology Abbreviated Journal Front Zool
Volume 10 Issue 1 Pages 60
Keywords European blackbirds; birds; Turdus merula; animals; melatonin; *Photoperiod
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Artificial light-at-night is known to affect a broad array of behaviours and physiological processes. In urbanized bird species, light-at-night advances important biological rhythms such as daily cycles of activity/rest and timing of reproduction, but our knowledge of the underlying physiological mechanisms is limited. Given its role as chronobiological signal, melatonin is a strong candidate for mediating the effects of light-at-night. RESULTS: We exposed urban and rural European blackbirds (Turdus merula) to two light treatments equal in photoperiod but with different light intensities at night. The control group was exposed to 0.0001 lux (almost darkness), while the experimental group was exposed to 0.3 lux at night, simulating conditions recorded previously on free-living urban blackbirds. We obtained diel profiles of plasma melatonin for all birds in summer (July) and winter (January), while simultaneously recording locomotor activity. Daily patterns of melatonin concentrations were clearly affected by light-at-night in both seasons. In winter, melatonin concentrations of light-at-night birds were lower in the early and late night than in those of birds kept in darkness. In summer, melatonin concentrations of the light-at-night birds were lower through all night compared to birds kept in darkness. Locomotor activity in light-at-night birds was overall higher than in control individuals, both during the day and at night, and it increased sharply before dawn. In winter, the amount of activity before dawn in the light-at-night group correlated with changes in melatonin from midnight to late night: the greater the decrease in melatonin, the greater the amount of pre-dawn activity. Urban and rural birds responded similarly to light-at-night with respect to melatonin, but differed in their behaviour, with rural birds showing more locomotor activity than urban counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: This study points to reduced melatonin release at night as a potential physiological mechanism underlying the advanced onset of morning activity of urbanized birds. Based on the pattern of melatonin secretion, we suggest that birds responded to light-at-night as if they were exposed to a longer day than birds kept under dark nights.
Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell, Germany. ddominoni@orn.mpg.de
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ISSN 1742-9994 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:24090446; PMCID:PMC3850952 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 41
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