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Author Kamrowski, R.L.; Limpus, C.; Jones, R.; Anderson, S.; Hamann, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Temporal changes in artificial light exposure of marine turtle nesting areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 20 Issue 8 Pages 2437-2449  
  Keywords GIS analysis; artificial light; conservation planning; marine turtles; population resilience; temporal change  
  Abstract Artificial light at night poses a significant threat to multiple taxa across the globe. In coastal regions, artificial lighting close to marine turtle nesting beaches is disruptive to their breeding success. Prioritizing effective management of light pollution requires an understanding of how the light exposure of nesting areas changes over time in response to changing temporal and spatial distributions of coastal development. We analyzed multitemporal, satellite night-light data, in combination with linear mixed model analysis, to determine broadscale changes in artificial light exposure at Australian marine turtle nesting areas between 1993 and 2010. We found seven marine turtle management units (MU), from five species, have experienced significant increases in light exposure over time, with flatback turtles nesting in east Australia experiencing the fastest increases. The remaining 12 MUs showed no significant change in light exposure. Unchanging MUs included those previously identified as having high exposure to light pollution (located in western Australia and southern Queensland), indicating that turtles in these areas have been potentially exposed to high light levels since at least the early nineties. At a finer geographic scale (within-MU), nine MUs contained nesting areas with significant increases in light exposure. These nesting areas predominantly occurred close to heavily industrialized coastal areas, thus emphasizing the importance of rigorous light management in industry. Within all MUs, nesting areas existed where light levels were extremely low and/or had not significantly increased since 1993. With continued coastal development, nesting females may shift to these darker/unchanging 'buffer' areas in the future. This is valuable information that informs our understanding of the capacity and resilience of marine turtles faced with coastal development: an understanding that is essential for effective marine turtle conservation.  
  Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24353164 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 73  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Clark, G.F.; Stark, J.S.; Johnston, E.L.; Runcie, J.W.; Goldsworthy, P.M.; Raymond, B.; Riddle, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-driven tipping points in polar ecosystems Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Chang Biol  
  Volume 19 Issue 12 Pages 3749-3761  
  Keywords Ecology; benthic; biodiversity; irradiance; macroalgae; marine ecology; polar; regime shift  
  Abstract Some ecosystems can undergo abrupt transformation in response to relatively small environmental change. Identifying imminent 'tipping points' is crucial for biodiversity conservation, particularly in the face of climate change. Here, we describe a tipping point mechanism likely to induce widespread regime shifts in polar ecosystems. Seasonal snow and ice-cover periodically block sunlight reaching polar ecosystems, but the effect of this on annual light depends critically on the timing of cover within the annual solar cycle. At high latitudes, sunlight is strongly seasonal, and ice-free days around the summer solstice receive orders of magnitude more light than those in winter. Early melt that brings the date of ice-loss closer to midsummer will cause an exponential increase in the amount of sunlight reaching some ecosystems per year. This is likely to drive ecological tipping points in which primary producers (plants and algae) flourish and out-compete dark-adapted communities. We demonstrate this principle on Antarctic shallow seabed ecosystems, which our data suggest are sensitive to small changes in the timing of sea-ice loss. Algae respond to light thresholds that are easily exceeded by a slight reduction in sea-ice duration. Earlier sea-ice loss is likely to cause extensive regime shifts in which endemic shallow-water invertebrate communities are replaced by algae, reducing coastal biodiversity and fundamentally changing ecosystem functioning. Modeling shows that recent changes in ice and snow cover have already transformed annual light budgets in large areas of the Arctic and Antarctic, and both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are likely to experience further significant change in light. The interaction between ice-loss and solar irradiance renders polar ecosystems acutely vulnerable to abrupt ecosystem change, as light-driven tipping points are readily breached by relatively slight shifts in the timing of snow and ice-loss.  
  Address School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23893603 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 850  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Gaston, Kevin J url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light pollution: are shifting spectral signatures changing the balance of species interactions? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Global Change Biologyology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 19 Issue 5 Pages 1417-1423  
  Keywords animals; ecosystems; species interaction; human vision  
  Abstract Technological developments in municipal lighting are altering the spectral characteristics of artificially lit habitats. Little is yet known of the biological consequences of such changes, although a variety of animal behaviours are dependent on detecting the spectral signature of light reflected from objects. Using previously published wavelengths of peak visual pigment absorbance, we compared how four alternative street lamp technologies affect the visual abilities of 213 species of arachnid, insect, bird, reptile and mammal by producing different wavelength ranges of light to which they are visually sensitive. The proportion of the visually detectable region of the light spectrum emitted by each lamp was compared to provide an indication of how different technologies are likely to facilitate visually guided behaviours such as detecting objects in the environment. Compared to narrow spectrum lamps, broad spectrum technologies enable animals to detect objects that reflect light over more of the spectrum to which they are sensitive and, importantly, create greater disparities in this ability between major taxonomic groups. The introduction of broad spectrum street lamps could therefore alter the balance of species interactions in the artificially lit environment.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1584  
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Author Jackett, M.; Frith, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety -- A New Zealand Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) IATSS Research Abbreviated Journal IATSS Research  
  Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 139-145  
  Keywords Lighting; roadway lighting; road safety; traffic safety; public safety  
  Abstract It is well known from the literature that road lighting has significant safety benefits. The NZTA Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) quotes a 35% reduction in crashes as the effect of upgrading or improving lighting where lighting is poor.

However, no well-established dose–response relationship to lighting parameters exists from which one can deduce benchmark levels of lighting for safety.

This study looked at a sample of street lighting installations spread over the urban areas of nine territorial local authorities. Standard street lighting parameters were measured in the field using a variety of instruments including illuminance meter, luminance meter and digital camera. Field measurements were related to the ratio of night-time to day time crashes as a measure of night time safety vis-a-vis daytime safety.

A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found between average road luminance and safety across all traffic volume groups, with an indication that the relationship may be stronger where more serious crashes are involved.

Threshold increment was also a significant variable but not so longitudinal uniformity or overall uniformity.

The results related to luminance will allow practitioners to better estimate the safety benefits of different levels of lighting resulting in better targeting of expenditure.
 
  Address Jackett Consulting, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; jackett(at)paradise.net.nz  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0386-1112 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 638  
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Author Cao, C.; Shao, X.; Uprety, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Detecting Light Outages After Severe Storms Using the S-NPP/VIIRS Day/Night Band Radiances Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters Abbreviated Journal IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing Lett.  
  Volume 10 Issue 6 Pages 1582-1586  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Power outages after a major storm affect the lives of millions of people and cause massive light outages. The launch of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) significantly enhances our capability to monitor and detect light outages with the well-calibrated day/night band (DNB) and to use light loss signatures as indication of regional power outages. This study explores the use of the DNB in quantifying light outages due to the derecho storm in the Washington DC metropolitan area in June 2012 and Hurricane Sandy at the end of October 2012 on the East Coast of U.S. The results show that the DNB data are very useful in detecting power outages by quantifying light loss, but it also has some challenges due to clouds, lunar illumination, and straylight effect. Comparison of light outage and recovery trend determined from DNB data with power company survey shows reasonable agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of DNB in independently verifying and complementing the statistics from power companies.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1545-598X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2040  
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Author Marquenie, J.M.; Donners, M.; Poot, H.; Steckel W.; de Witt, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bird-Friendly Light Sources: Adapting the Spectral Composition of Artificial Lighting Type Magazine Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) IEEE Industry Application Magazine Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 56-62  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1088  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Li, X.; Chen, F.; Chen, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Satellite-Observed Nighttime Light Variation as Evidence for Global Armed Conflicts Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observations Remote Sensing  
  Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 2302-2315  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Society  
  Abstract The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of nighttime light images, acquired with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS), in evaluating global armed conflicts. To achieve this purpose, we assessed the relationship between armed conflicts and the satellite-observed nighttime light variation over 159 countries through annual composites of the nighttime light images. Firstly, a light ratio index was developed to reduce the data inconsistency of annual nighttime light images during 1992-2010. Then 12 countries were selected as examples for a primary investigation, and we found the outbreak of a war can reduce the light and the ceasefire can increase the light from the remote sensing images, which indicates armed conflict events always have significant impact on the nighttime light. Based on this assertion, a nighttime light variation index (NLVI) was developed to quantify the variation of the time series nighttime light. Then using conditional probability analysis, the probability of a country suffering from armed conflicts increases with increase of NLVI. Particularly, when the NLVI value is in a very high level as defined, 80% of the countries have experienced armed conflicts. Furthermore, using correlation analysis, the number of global armed conflicts is highly correlated with the global NLVI in temporal dimension, with a correlation coefficient larger than 0.77. In summary, the potential of nighttime light images in armed conflict evaluation is extended from a regional scale to a global scale by this study.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1939-1404 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1876  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Femia, N.; Fortunato, M.; Vitelli, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-to-Light: PV-Fed LED Lighting Systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics Abbreviated Journal IEEE Trans. Power Electron.  
  Volume 28 Issue 8 Pages 4063-4073  
  Keywords light-to-light systems; outdoor lighting; lighting technology; LED; LED lighting; photovoltaics; PV  
  Abstract This paper discusses the principle of operation, dynamic modeling, and control design for light-to-light (LtL) systems, whose aim is to directly convert the sun irradiation into artificial light. The system discussed in this paper is composed by a photovoltaic (PV) panel, an LED array, a dc-dc converter dedicated to the maximum power point tracking of the PV panel and a dc-dc converter dedicated to drive the LEDs array. A system controller is also included, whose goal is to ensure the matching between the maximum available PV power and the LED power by means of a low-frequency LEDs dimming. An experimental design example is discussed to illustrate the functionalities of the LtL system.  
  Address Dipt. di Ing. Elettron. e Ing. Inf., Univ. of Salerno, Salerno, Italy  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0885-8993 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 331  
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Author De Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J. M.; Gómez Castaño, J.; Ocaña, F.; Pascual Ramírez, S.; López Cayuela, M. A.,; et al. openurl 
  Title ). Contaminaci{ó}n lum{í}nica en Espa{ñ}a 2012: Light pollution in Spain 2012 Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) In Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VII Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages 956  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 926  
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Author Zamorano, J.; de Miguel, A.; Alfaro, E.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Ocaña, F.; Nievas, M.; mez Castaño, J. openurl 
  Title NIXNOX project: Enjoy the dark skies of Spain Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) In Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VII Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages 962–970  
  Keywords Remote Sensing  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 982  
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