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Author Jones, A.; Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Szyszka, C.; Kimeswenger, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title An advanced scattered moonlight model for Cerro Paranal Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Astronomy & Astrophysics Abbreviated Journal A&A  
  Volume 560 Issue Pages A91  
  Keywords Moonlight  
  Abstract The largest natural source of light at night is the Moon, and it is the major contributor to the astronomical sky background. Being able to accurately predict the sky background, including scattered moonlight is important for scheduling astronomical observations. We have developed an improved scattered moonlight model, in which the components are computed with a better physical understanding as opposed to the simple empirical fit in the frequently used photometric model of Krisciunas & Schaefer (1991, PASP, 103, 1033). Our spectroscopic model can better trace the spectral trends of scattered moonlight for any position of the Moon and target observation. This is the first scattered moonlight model that we know of which is this physical and versatile. We have incorporated an observed solar spectrum, accurate lunar albedo fit, and elaborate scattering and absorption calculations that include scattering off of molecules and aerosols. It was designed for Cerro Paranal, but can be modified for any location with known atmospheric properties. Throughout the optical range, the uncertainty is less than 20%. This advanced scattered moonlight model can predict the amount of scattered moonlight for any given geometry of the Moon and target, and lunar phase for the entire optical spectrum.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0004-6361 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1461  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Johnson, R.S.; Zhang, J.; Hyer, E.J.; Miller, S.D.; Reid, J.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Preliminary investigations toward nighttime aerosol optical depth retrievals from the VIIRS Day/Night Band Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Abbreviated Journal Atmos. Meas. Tech.  
  Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 1245-1255  
  Keywords VIIRS; remote sensing; Suomi NPP; aerosol; optical depth; AERONET; light pollution; measurements  
  Abstract A great need exists for reliable nighttime aerosol products at high spatial and temporal resolution. In this concept demonstration study, using Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Day/Night Band (DNB) observations on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite, a new method is proposed for retrieving nighttime aerosol optical depth (τ) using the contrast between regions with and without artificial surface lights. Evaluation of the retrieved τ values against daytime AERONET data from before and after the overpass of the VIIRS satellite over the Cape Verde, Grand Forks, and Alta Floresta AERONET stations yields a coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.71. This study suggests that the VIIRS DNB has the potential to provide useful nighttime aerosol detection and property retrievals.  
  Address Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1867-8548 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 200  
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Author Bolshakov, C.V.; Bulyuk, V.N.; Sinelschikova, A.Y.; Vorotkov, M.V. url  openurl
  Title Influence of the vertical light beam on numbers and flight trajectories of night-migrating songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Avian Ecol. Behav. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 24 Issue Pages 35–49  
  Keywords Animals; nocturnal migration; light pollution; numbers; flight track; extrinsic factors  
  Abstract In this paper we analyse the data obtained in the automatic regime by the Optical Electronic Device (OED, Vorotkov et al. 2009; Bolshakov et al. 2010) for autumn nocturnal passage of passerines on the Courish Spit on the Baltic Sea and estimate: (1) numbers aloft under differ- ent types of wind (following wind, opposing wind and calm conditions); (2) flight trajectories in the 5° cone of white light. We found that under natural nocturnal illumination conditions, the vertical cone of white light impacts the detectable numbers aloft and disturbs straight flight trajectories. The OED data obtained throughout the night suggest, after correction for ground speed and the mean flight altitude, the actual number of birds in the light cone peaks at calm conditions, is halved under following winds which are optimal for passage and is 21 times lower under unfavourable headwinds. It is assumed that high numbers in the light cone under calm conditions is an artefact of bird attraction by light and their concentration around the searchlights. The OED data obtained for midnight ±1 hour, flying migrants respond to the vertical light cone under all types of wind conditions by altering their straight flight trajec- tories. However, this response is most apparent in still air conditions. The proportion of birds that change their flight track reaches 43%. We assume that under such conditions some birds are not only attracted to the illuminated zone at low altitudes, but, besides slowing down their ground speed, change their trajectories to the degree of flying in circles. To determine combi- nations of factors and to test for their possible impact on the probability of response to light, we used a binary logistic regression. The presence of birds with straight vs. curved tracks was used as the dependent variable. Final logistic models obtained for midnight ±1 hour for calm conditions and headwinds, suggest that occurrence probability of songbirds with curvilinear flight tracks is higher for small birds, when no or just a small part of Moon disk is visible and under high air humidity. Under headwinds the probability of occurrence of birds flying curvi- linear tracks is also higher under overcast. For following winds, the probability of occurrence birds flying curvilinearly was higher when many small birds were aloft, when air humidity was high and when wind was not strictly following. Unlike other wind situations, this model did not include the size of visible part of the Moon disk as a significant factor. The increase of occurrence of curvilinear flight tracks through the light beam when winds were not exactly following was probably caused by the problems with compensating the lateral component of tailwinds under high velocities, especially by small birds.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 378  
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Author Grant, R.; Halliday, T.; Chadwick, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Amphibians' response to the lunar synodic cycle--a review of current knowledge, recommendations, and implications for conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behavioral Ecology  
  Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 53-62  
  Keywords amphibians; circular statistics; light; lunar cycle; moon phase; predator avoidance; reproductive synchronization; moonlight  
  Abstract The way in which amphibians respond to the geophysical changes brought about by the lunar synodic cycle is a neglected area of their ecology, but one which has recently generated interest. Knowledge of how amphibians respond to lunar phase is of intrinsic interest and also may be important for conservation and monitoring of populations. We surveyed the literature on amphibians’ responses to the lunar cycle and found 79 examples where moon phase in relation to amphibian behavior and ecology had been studied, across diverse amphibian taxa. Of the examples reviewed, most of them show some type of response to lunar phase, with only a few species being unaffected. We found that there is no significant difference between the numbers of species which increase, and those that decrease activity or reproductive behavior (including calling) during a full moon. The responses to the lunar cycle can not be generalized across taxonomic group, but instead are highly species specific and relate directly to the species’ ecology. The primary reasons for changes in amphibian behavior in response to the lunar cycle appear to be temporal synchronization of breeding and predator avoidance. Responses to changes in prey availability, facilitation of visual signalling and use of lunar cues in navigation and homing are less prevalent but merit further investigation. Comparisons between studies are hampered by differences in field and analytical methods; we therefore make a number of recommendations for future collection and analysis of data related to lunar phase.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 81  
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night increases depressive-like responses in male C3H/HeNHsd mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 243 Issue Pages 74-78  
  Keywords Affect/physiology; Anhedonia/physiology; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Depression/*etiology/physiopathology; Hippocampus/*metabolism/pathology; Light/*adverse effects; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C3H; Neuropsychological Tests; Photoperiod  
  Abstract Daily patterns of light exposure have become increasingly variable since the widespread adoption of electrical lighting during the 20th century. Seasonal fluctuations in light exposure, shift-work, and transmeridian travel are all associated with alterations in mood. These studies implicate fluctuations in environmental lighting in the development of depressive disorders. Here we argue that exposure to light at night (LAN) may be causally linked to depression. Male C3H/HeNHsd mice, which produce nocturnal melatonin, were housed in either a standard light/dark (LD) cycle or exposed to nightly dim (5 lux) LAN (dLAN). After four weeks in lighting conditions mice underwent behavioral testing and hippocampal tissue was collected at the termination of the study for qPCR. Here were report that mice exposed to dLAN increase depressive-like responses in both a sucrose anhedonia and forced swim test. In contrast to findings in diurnal grass rats, dLAN mice perform comparably to mice housed under dark nights in a hippocampus-dependent learning and memory task. TNFalpha and IL1beta gene expression do not differ between groups, demonstrating that changes in these pro-inflammatory cytokines do not mediate dLAN induced depressive-like responses in mice. BDNF expression is reduced in the hippocampus of mice exposed to dLAN. These results indicate that low levels of LAN can alter mood in mice. This study along with previous work implicates LAN as a potential factor contributing to depression. Further understanding of the mechanisms through which LAN contributes to changes in mood is important for characterizing and treating depressive disorders.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23291153 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 95  
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