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Author Becker, A.; Whitfield, A.K.; Cowley, P.D.; Järnegren, J.; Naesje, T.F.; Crispo, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Potential effects of artificial light associated with anthropogenic infrastructure on the abundance and foraging behaviour of estuary-associated fishes Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol  
  Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 43-50  
  Keywords fish; biology; ecology  
  Abstract As a consequence of a positive phototaxic response, the findings of this study suggest that artificial light often associated with man-made structures has the potential to alter fish communities within urban estuarine ecosystems by creating optimal conditions for predators. Future coastal developments should consider the ecological implications of lighting on aquatic communities. We recommend that lighting be minimized around coastal infrastructure and the use of red lights, which have limited penetration though water, be considered.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 64  
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Author Fonken, L.K.; Aubrecht, T.G.; Melendez-Fernandez, O.H.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 28 Issue 4 Pages 262-271  
  Keywords Animals; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Body Weight/*physiology; CLOCK Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Corticosterone/metabolism; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Immunohistochemistry; Light; *Lighting; Male; Mice; Motor Activity; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism/physiology; clock genes; feeding rhythm; light pollution; obesity  
  Abstract With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience and Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23929553; PMCID:PMC4033305 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 28  
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Author Gallaway, T.; Olsen, R.N.; Mitchell, D.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Blinded by the Light: Economic Analysis of Severe Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Journal of Economic Insight Abbreviated Journal J Econ Insight  
  Volume 39 Issue 1 Pages 45-63  
  Keywords Economics; light pollution  
  Abstract This paper examines severe light pollution such as commonly found in large urban areas. Light pollution is the unintended negative consequences of poorly designed and injudiciously used artificial lighting. Light pollution generates significant costs including wasted energy and damage to human health, wildlife, recreation, and the beauty of the night sky. Typically, light-pollution models emphasize population density and ignore economic factors. Economic analysis of the issue has been singularly limited. Previous economic research has focused on widespread, but very low levels of light pollution. This paper makes a unique contribution by analyzing economic factors of severe light pollution. The paper utilizes economic data from the World Bank and unique remote sensing data for 184 countries to quantify the economic causes of severe light pollution. Fractional logit models confirm the importance of population and economic factors alike.  
  Address Department of Economics, Missouri State University; TerrelGallaway(at)missouristate.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Missouri Valley Economic Association Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0361-6576 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2338  
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Skyglow effects in UV and visible spectra: radiative fluxes Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage  
  Volume 127 Issue Pages 300-307  
  Keywords Animals; Darkness; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; *Light; Models, Theoretical; *Ultraviolet Rays; Light pollution; Optical thickness; Public lighting system; Two stream approximation  
  Abstract Several studies have tried to understand the mechanisms and effects of radiative transfer under different night-sky conditions. However, most of these studies are limited to the various effects of visible spectra. Nevertheless, the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can pose a more profound threat to nature. One visible threat is from what is popularly termed skyglow. Such skyglow is caused by injudiciously situated or designed artificial night lighting systems which degrade desired sky viewing. Therefore, since lamp emissions are not limited to visible electromagnetic spectra, it is necessary to consider the complete spectrum of such lamps in order to understand the physical behaviour of diffuse radiation at terrain level. In this paper, the downward diffuse radiative flux is computed in a two-stream approximation and obtained ultraviolet spectral radiative fluxes are inter-related with luminous fluxes. Such a method then permits an estimate of ultraviolet radiation if the traditionally measured illuminance on a horizontal plane is available. The utility of such a comparison of two spectral bands is shown, using the different lamp types employed in street lighting. The data demonstrate that it is insufficient to specify lamp type and its visible flux production independently of each other. Also the UV emissions have to be treated by modellers and environmental scientists because some light sources can be fairly important pollutants in the near ultraviolet. Such light sources can affect both the living organisms and ambient environment.  
  Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 9, Dubravska Road, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. kocifaj@savba.sk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23792881 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 265  
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Author Johansson, M.; Pedersen, E.; Maleetipwan-Mattsson, P.; Kuhn, L.; Laike, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Perceived outdoor lighting quality (POLQ): A lighting assessment tool Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (up) Journal of Environmental Psychology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Environmental Psychology  
  Volume 39 Issue Pages 14-21  
  Keywords Perception; Street lighting; Observation-based environmental assessment; Urban space  
  Abstract A shift towards more energy-efficient light sources for outdoor lighting such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is underway. Photometric measures are not sufficient to capture how users experience the light, so complementary tools are required. This study aimed to develop an observer-based environmental assessment tool, based on bipolar semantic differentials, for outdoor lighting in urban spaces. Exploratory (N = 130) and confirmatory (N = 117) factor analyses of observations of lighting installations made by laypersons on-site along pedestrian paths, resulted in two dimensions of high reliability: the Perceived Strength Quality (PSQ, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82–0.85) and the Perceived Comfort Quality (PCQ, Cronbach's alpha = 0.77–0.81). PSQ and PCQ differentiated between light sources of different illuminance level, colour temperature and colour rendering. Regression analyses showed that the perceived lighting qualities helped to explain the variance in visual accessibility, whereas PCQ helped to explain perceived danger in the environment. The perceived lighting qualities can add to the understanding of pedestrians' perception of outdoor lighting, and is proposed as a complementary tool for development of sustainable light designs in the urban environment.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0272-4944 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 279  
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